Created by: Thatiana Taborda Daniela Delgado Lea Figueroa Arielle Marquez Period 4. The Urinary System. The function of the Urinary System.
The principal function of the urinary system is to maintain the volume and composition of body fluids within normal limits. One aspect of this function is to rid the body of waste products that accumulate as a result of cellular metabolism. Other aspects of its function include regulating the concentrations of various electrolytes in the body fluids and maintaining normal pH of the blood.
In addition to maintaining fluid homeostasis in the body, the urinary system controls red blood cell production by secreting the hormone erythropoietin. The urinary system also plays a role in maintaining normal blood pressure by secreting the enzyme renin.
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys form the urine and account for the other functions attributed to the urinary system. The ureters carry the urine away from kidneys to the urinary bladder, which is a temporary reservoir for the urine. The urethra is a tubular structure that carries the urine from the urinary bladder to the outside.
The kidneys are most commonly viewed as the organs responsible for the production of urine - the liquid waste product of daily metabolism. The two kidneys are located on either side of the backbone in the back, at the level of the lowest of the rib cage. They are about the size of an adult's fist in The kid length and weigh less than one-half of one percent of the total body weight. Yet, together the two kidneys receive approximately one-fifth of the blood that is pumped out from the heart every minute. That disproportionate amount of blood flow to size of the organs is required in order for the kidneys to perform a primary task, removing potentially harmful waste products from the blood, which are formed as the result of our bodies breaking down foodstuffs, drugs and the contents of dying cells. If we did not have the removal of these toxic substances in the urine we would fall ill. For the kidneys to play such a vital role, they need to be more than passive filters of blood but also active regulators of the final composition of the urine.
The healthy kidneys do much more than produce urine and prevent the loss of important substances like protein. They play a vital role in the manufacturing and processing of a number of hormones. The kidneys also produce substances that regulate local blood flow and hence the filtering of blood and urine production. The kidney has multiple functions in addition to the making of urine.
The ureters are the thick, long 'tubes' that aid the urine in moving from the kidneys to the bladder. They are about 10 to 12 inches in length and the urine moves downward by gravity and waves of contractions. The ureters enter the urinary bladder at an angle to help prevent any back flow of urine back into the ureter.
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and elastic organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder by the ureters and exits by the urethra. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is above the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. In females, the bladder sits below the uterus and prior to the vagina. Its maximum capacity is lower than in males. It is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. In infants and young children, the urinary bladder is in the abdomen even when empty.
In both men and women, the urethra is the tube through which urine is excreted from the urinary bladder to outside the body. Urine flows from the bladder out of the body by way of the urethra when the sphincter muscle is relaxed. The urethral sphincter muscle is at the base of the bladder and controls the release of urine from the bladder into the urethra, which then flows out of the opening at the end of the urethra when urinating. The urethra is approximately 1 1/2 inches long in females and around 8 inches long in males. The urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis in men and between the clitoris and vaginal opening in women. In males the urethra also carries semen from the ejaculatory duct outwards through the penis. The semen is directed from the reproductive organs through the vas deferens tube for semen that intersects with the urethra at the prostate gland. A valve there at the base of the urethra directs the flow of either urine or semen through the urethra and out of the opening at the end of the urethra.
Prostate cancer: prostate cancer is an out of control cell growth in the prostate gland. Patients which have this condition at first don’t notice it because usually there are no early prostate cancer symptoms. This condition can be cured for a while but it isn’t guaranteed that it won’t come back; there are possibilities that after undergoing a treatment the cancer goes away and years after you can get it again. Treatments for prostate cancer could be hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, cyrotherapy, and radiation therapy. Bad habits that can cause prostate cancer would be sitting for to long because your blood is circulating slowly and that leads directly to the part of the prostate chronic congestion. Even though prostate cancer doesn’t show any early symptoms it shows symptoms when the cancer is more advanced which would be: trouble urinating, decreased force in the stream of the urine, blood in the urine, blood in the semen, swelling in the legs, discomfort in the pelvic area, and bone pain. The gender which gets this disease is only men because men are the one that have a prostate gland, and at times the prostate cancer gene can run in the family meaning that at times it could be hereditary.
Renal Failure- this abnormal conditions is basically when the kidney stops functioning. The condition can be caused by poisoning, shock, hemorrhage, nephritis, or dehydration. The common symptoms are headache, ammonia smell coming from the breathe, anuria, edema, cardiac arrhythmia, and uremia. Renal failure is usually caused when the blood supply of the kidney is disturbed, or when the toxins overwhelm the kidney. This condition can’t be cured, but it can be treated. Treatments for this abnormal disease could be dialysis. Dialysis one type of treatment for renal failure that is usually used for it’s last stages, but its also the most common treatment used for renal failure. And dialysis is used to keep harmful toxins from going into your blood and staying there. People undergoing dialysis usually have to attend appointments 3 days a week and the treatment can last from 3 – 4 hours. But there are to different types of dialysis treatments that are used for renal failure which would be Hemodialysis which involves diverting blood through a machine as it flows throughout the body. And the other type of dialysis is peritoneal, and in this treatment the patient is injected into the patient’s abdominal area and this causes the toxins that are in the body to become thinner and transfer out into the fluid, and then the fluid is removed after 6 hours. You are more prone to this diseases if you are and every day smoker, and if you don’t exercise, have a bad diet, you consume large amounts of alcohol, and if you take drugs. People that usually get renal failure are usually from 35-80 years old, and African Americans and Native Americans are most likely to develop the the condition, and men are more prone to it.
Cystitis- Cystitis is usually caused by pathogens entering the urinary meatus causing inflammation of the bladder. The sex that is usually more prone to this abnormal condition are females, because their urethra is shorter than that of a males, and females usually from their teen years to there eighties get this conditions. Symptoms received by this abnormal condition is dysuria, a burning sensations when urinating, hematuria, constant urination, lower back pain, bladder spasm, and fever. This condition is definitely curable with treatments. Treatments for it are the following: having a complete cycle of antibiotics, and an expansion in fluid intake. Cystitis can be caused by bad habits such as intaking drugs, using potential irritants, such as feminine hygiene spray, having bubble baths, deodorization of tampons, or using hot tubs which aren’t clean.
ARF - acute renal failure
BUN - blood urea nitrogen
Cath - catheter, catheterization
HD - hemodialysis
I&O - intake & output
NPN - non-protein nitrogen
Urol - urology
UTI - urinary tract infection
a-, an- without, not
cyst/o bladder, cyst
-ectasis, -ectasia dilation, expansion
lith/o stone, calculus
-uria urine condition
vesic/o urinary bladder
Urologist- A urologist mostly examines patients who have serious conditions like incontinence, kidney stones, and (UTI) Urinary tract infections. Also, other conditions like benign tumors, and blockages. These doctors make between $325,200-$426,000 yearly. Their required education for this pathway is 4 years of Undergraduate school, 4 years of Medical school, and finally 3-8 years of Internship and Residency.
Nephrologist- A branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of a function and diseases of the kidney. The education required for this career are the following: Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine and Doctor of Medicine. The salary for this career ranges from $168,567-$275,195.
Dialysis Technician- They operate on kidneys, they usually perform under supervision by either registered nurses or physicians. To become a DT you must first be certified by the board or Nephrology Examination. The annual income for, (DT’s) is around $30,000. You must have a GED, also additional training in how to operate Dialysis equipment. Know emergency procedures such as CPR. They are also required to have worked in a clinical setting being supervised ofcourse.