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Chapter 6. Development and Quality Plans. Development plan and quality plan objectives The elements of the development plan Elements of the quality plan Development and quality plans for small and for internal projects Software development risks and software risk management .

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Chapter 6

Development and Quality Plans

  • Developmentplanand quality planobjectives

  • The elements of the development plan

  • Elements of the quality plan

  • Developmentand quality plans for smalland for internal projects

  • Software development risks and software risk management


  • Project managers prepare

    • development and

    • quality plans.

  • Onerous task,

    • Senior level management on one end and

    • Developers on the other

  • Two dance to different drummers.

  • These plans are vitallyimportant to meet contractual commitments

  • Thus, we need to look at:

  • Objectives of development and quality plans

  • Elements of development plans

  • Elements of quality plans

  • Major software risks

  • Process of software riskmanagement

  • Importance of development and quality plans for small projects

  • Importance of development and quality plans for internal projects.

6.1 Development Plan and Quality Plan Objectives

Planning is meant to prepare adequate foundations for successful and timely completion of the project. The planning process includes:

1. Scheduling development activities and estimating the required manpower resources and budget

2. Recruiting team members and allocating development resources

3. Resolving development risks

4. Implementing required SQA activities

5. Providing management with data needed for project control

6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

Each of the following 10 components of a development plan are appropriate to different parts of a project. 

1. Project Products, specifying “deliverables”

Critically important.

Must decide on deliverables!

dates and items

installation site – local or physical install

training – customer service

dates, participants, and sites

(much is done on line now…)

6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

2. Project Interfaces

  • How does the new software interface with existing software?

    • (major consideration in large corporation)

  • How does the software affect other parts of a larger system or similar systems??

    • Often requires ‘escalation.’

  • Any hardware considerations for interfacing? Special hardware?

  • 6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

    3.   Project methodology and development tools for various phases during development, maintenance.

    • Heuristic: never use untested tool / methodology on a new project with high visibility!!

    • Methodology must be decided upon.

      • Usually organizations have ‘established’ ways of proceeding…

    • Software Development Standards and Procedures

      Must be conventions!! Standards and Integration!!

      a MUST!

    6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

    5. Laying out the Development Process

    Define the project’s phases

    Planning: inputs/outputs/activities/activity duration/sequence and dependencies/resources needed for each activity/ design reviews/ testing/ training for customer support/ more…

    GANTTT Charts / CPM , PERT all include sequence dependencies and duration.

    Microsoft Project and Rational Conductor

    • Project Milestones

      completion dates, products clearly define.

      Must synchronize with Overall Plan.

      More detailed than Overall Plan

      More detailed than iteration plans

    6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

    7.   Project Staff Organization

    Organizational structure – teams, tasks, sub contractors, temporary workers. Pecking order…

    much risk!

    Professional requirements of teams / leadership


    Numbers for periods of time

    team size varies from beginning to fully staffed, to...

    Designate team leaders and members

    team composition will change throughout a long development effort.

    staff evaporation; reassignments; illness, …..

    6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

    8.   Development Facilities

    Hardware, software, tools, development environments, training on these, space

    Very important.

    Many very nice facilities nowadays – break rooms, ping pong; nice coffee / beverage facilities; day care.

    • Control Methods

      How to control the monitoring process / reporting process with respect to plans, test reports, reviews, howgoesit, and more

    6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

    • Project Cost Estimation

      An art in itself based on many models and experience.

      COCOMO and COCOM II Models (Barry Boehm)

      human resource estimates,

      contracts with suppliers,

      internal development and unavailability,

      budget changes,

      risk considerations.

      travel first go go

      training second to go…

    6.2 Elements of the Development Plan

    • Development Risks - Inherent in any project

      Risk: “a state or property of a development task or environment, which, if ignored, will increased the likelihood of project failure.”

      Technology risks – experience of team members

      Personnel shortages – can arise during project

      Environmental risks

      Budget risks

      Interdependence on others (hardware; subcontractors, etc.)

    More on risks
    More on Risks

    Risk Management: identification, evaluation, planning actions, implementation, monitoring…

    Calculation of Risk

    Monitoring of risk throughout development cycle!!

    The Spiral Model – specifically incorporating risk to every cycle (next chapter)

    Boehm and Ross's

    Top 10 software risk items

    1. Developing wrong software functions *

    2. Unrealistic schedules and budgets *

    3. Developing wrong user interface

    4. Gold plating *

    5. Continuing stream of requirement changes *

    6. Shortfalls in externally furnished components

    7. Shortfalls in externally performed tasks

    8. Personnel shortfalls *

    9. Real-time performance shortfalls *

    10. Straining computer science capabilities





    Risk identification


    and assessment

    Planning risk

    Planning and updating risk

    management activities

    management activities




    risk management actions

    (risk resolution)

    Identifying and

    assessing new software


    Monitoring software risk

    management activities

    Required results

    Unsatisfactory results





    The software risk

    management process

    6.3 The Elements of a the Quality Plan

    1.List of quality goals

    These refer to the quality requirements in the developed software system.

    Quantitative measures usually preferred to qualitative measures when choosing goals because they are usually easier to assess objectively during testing.

    Quality goals should reflect the major acceptance criteria found in the requirement’s document (an RFP)

    correctness, reliability, robustness, maintainability….

    RFP is often used to measure successful achievement of the customer’s quality requirements.

    6.3 The Elements of a the Quality Plan

    2.Planned Review Activities

    The planned reviews should include a listing of all reviews.

    design reviews

    technical reviews

    managerial reviews

    code inspections

    Pros and Cons……………………

    All reviews need to include:

    Scope – what does it cover

    Type – emphasis – managerial, technical, super detailed…

    Schedule – often based on previous reviews and outcomes

    Procedures – action lists; present and discuss; …

    Who is to attend? Collateral interest?? *****

    Responsibilities for review; documents needed, by when…

    6.3 The Elements of a the Quality Plan

    3. Planned Software Tests

    Must include a completelist of planned tests

    Each test must include the following:

    coverage of test: unit, integration, system, subsystem….

    typeoftest: may include computer-generated tests and their application via test suites, and more

    Planned test schedule – prioritized and follow up

    Exact procedures (for different types of tests…)

    Who is responsible for carrying out tests

    notification, time, date, materials, facilities, etc…

    Different people responsible at different times!! **

    6.3 The Elements of a the Quality Plan

    4.Planned Acceptance Tests for ExternallyDeveloped Software

    A complete set of acceptance tests to be run for externally developed software must be provided within the quality plan!

    (Complete set must be run for our own developed software!)

    Especially critical for purchased software, contracted software, customer-supplied software.

    These tests can be run in parallel with internally-developed software tests (tests that internally are developed to supplement other tests)

    6.3 The Elements of a the Quality Plan

    5.Configuration Management

    The quality plan MUST include configuration management tools and procedures for managing the software configurations, versions, etc.

    Must be an intrinsic part of the entire project!

    The Quality Plan may be included within the Development Plan or as an independent document.

    The document, however compiled, must be reviewed and approved by the organization’s standard approval process.

    Development / Quality Plans for

    Small and Internal Projects

    Natural for many to try to avoid hassle of preparing all these plans.

    In fact, heavy-weight methodologies are often called plan-centric; Agile methods try to avoid much planning and documentation

    The question is simply does a short, small project (likw 30-60 days; two or three individuals) deserve the time spent on planning a development and quality plan?

    Answer: No, not exactly.

    Development / Quality Plans for Small Projects

    Lots of issues here…

    Sometimes not done due to short duration / manpower

    Sometimes planning is left up to the project leader’s discretion.

    Perhaps a critically-important and high risk but short duration effort with high-penalty shouts for a plan…

    Sometimes, via contract, both development and quality plans are simply required.

    Development / Quality Plans for Small Projects

    • Several advantages to planned over unplanned projects:

    • A more comprehensive / thorough understanding of the task is likely (gained when developing the plan)

    • Greater responsibility for meeting obligations can be assigned, as they can be ‘seen’ more clearly since articulated (who does what)

    • Easier to share control of the project and identify unexpected delays (any plan better than no plan at all!)

    • Better understanding of requirements and timetable can be reached between customer and developer.

    Development / Quality Plans for Internal Projects

    Lots of projects done for the internal use of organization.

    Here, normally no external body is a customer

    Can be medium or large scale.

    Tendency to avoid adequate development / quality plans

    avoiding plans is fraught with errors.

    cost overruns, finger pointing, missed dates, internal friction among cooperating shops, …

    Often put on back burner!!

    Preparing Plans provides Advantages

    Internal Customers ‘can’ enjoy advantages.

    smaller deviations from planned completion dates

    smaller budget overruns

    better control over development process – problems can be addressed locally,


    reduced risk of market loss (done for internal use)

    reduced risk of litigation (late arrival; non-compliance)

    reduced risk of impairing a firm’s reputation

    reduced risk of requesting a budget supplement.