Women During WWI. Women and the War Effort. Look at the following primary sources and infer – what do they tell us about what women did in the First World War? Identify an activity or a role. Interpret – categorize each source
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Women and the War Effort • Look at the following primary sources and infer – what do they tell us about what women did in the First World War? Identify an activity or a role. • Interpret – categorize each source • Shows women doing things they had traditionally done before the war • Shows women doing NEW things – a result of the war • Shows women doing familiar things but now changed by the requirements of the war
Before the War • Seen for “traditional” roles and duties. • Recognized as objects of beauty, not for what they did. (yet they did a lot)
WWI Was a turning point For Women • Men left overseas for WWI,
Women are forced/welcomed into the Workforce • Women entered for 2 reasons, • 1, Their sole support was gone and they needed money to survive • 2, Factories were in demand of labour for the war effort.
Women’s New Roles • Emergency war jobs, phone operators, telegraphers and stenographers, Rail Road Workers, • Factories, factories, factories.
Roles in the factories • Over 30,000 Canadian women worked in factories during the war making military supplies (guns, bullets, uniforms, ships, tanks etc). • Women also employed as welders, fitters, machinists, riveters and numerous other jobs that before the war were considered to be “men’s work.”
Not all good! • Workers or slaves ?? • Women paid ½ salary of men. • (they had no union) and male unions anti-losing their jobs. • Near end of the war Women Unions did form, mostly working conditions not salaries raise. • “Canaries” from sulfur.
War At Home • New idea of war being fought on the home front, (this is perpetuated in WWII.) • Woman can help fight the war at home; • Conserve coal, fuel, food, clothing, money • Prepare items for war (cloths, blanket, etc) This is done through Peer and Media pressure
War at Home con’t • Children in blind schools in Canada spent time knitting and sewing items to be sent to Canadian soldiers fighting overseas. • Along with others women who could not go overseas or work in a factory, they made things like socks, scarves, balaclavas pillows sheets, flannel shirts etc.
Power of Persuasion • Posters in Canada urged women to give their husbands and sons permission to join. • Canadian women walked the streets and encouraged fit young men to enlist • White feather campaign. Women would handout white feathers to able body men who were not willing to join (public humiliation).
Their New Duties -Keep soldiers equipped, - and the nation moving.
Woman’s Land Army • In Britain and USA as sons and husbands off at war, women grouped together and were paid to farm. • Hard labour, as tractors and fuel were saved for the war effort. • Women also would raise money for the war effort.
Women did not have to stay away from the front • Nursing was the primary way to help overseas. • VAD, Voluntary Aid Detachment, had $$ • FANY, Fist aid nurses Yeomanry, less glamorous, drove ambulances, bathed patients, removed bodies, as well as soup kitchens • 2000 women enlisted in Canadian Armed forces as nurses • Reasons for going; • need $$, adventure, get out of roles, • help war effort. • 1000 Canadian Women were employed by the Royal Air Force as truck drivers, mechanics and ambulance drivers.
Not all glamorous • “We slept in our clothes and cut our hair short so that it would tuck inside our caps. Dressing simply meant putting on our boots. There were times when we had to scrape the lice off with the blunt edge of a knife and our cloths stuck to us” Elizabeth de T’Saecales, nurse on front line • Nurse were 16+,
Conclusion • Women emerge from male-dominated society. (turning point for women). • This sets the stage for 1918 when women given political power, Winnipeg,