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Warm Up. The genetic code of a DNA molecule is determined by a specific sequence of A. ATP molecules C. chemical bonds B. sugar molecules D. nitrogenous bases. Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression. Why does a cell need proteins to function properly?. Time to make the

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Presentation Transcript
Warm up
Warm Up

The genetic code of a DNA molecule is determined by a specific sequence of

A. ATP molecules C. chemical bonds

B. sugar molecules D. nitrogenous bases






Where are proteins made
Where are proteins made? proteins...

B. Ribosomes


Warm up 3111800

DNA: proteins...deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA is double stranded.

Contains sugar deoxyribose.

DNA contains bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine.

DNA never leaves the nucleus.

RNA: ribonucleic acid

RNA is single stranded.

Contains sugar ribose.

RNA contains bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and URACIL.

RNA can leave the nucleus.

Let’s Review DNA & RNA


Remember there are three types of rna
Remember there are three types of RNA proteins...

  • mRNA: messenger RNA

DNA

mRNA

  • tRNA: transfer RNA.

Transcription

Amino acid

tRNA

towing

  • rRNA: ribosomal RNA

Translation


Overall process of protein synthesis
Overall process of protein synthesis proteins...

transcription

translation

mRNA

DNA

Protein


Summary of protein synthesis
Summary of Protein Synthesis proteins...

  • DNA  mRNA  tRNA  protein

  • The process of going from DNA to mRNA is transcription.

  • The process of going from mRNA to protein is translation.


Let s explore this in a little more detail

Let’s explore this in a little more detail... proteins...

First, let’s see how the message in DNA gets to the ribosomes…


Dna s tragedy
DNA’s tragedy proteins...

If I could only

get out there…

I’d show them

a thing or two!

  • DNA contains volumes of information about making protein.

  • Unfortunately, DNA is too huge to leave the nucleus.

ribosomes

nucleus


How does the cell solve this problem transcription
How does the cell solve this problem….transcription proteins...

How do I tell

those guys what

I want them

to do?

  • That’s where mRNA comes in.

  • mRNA helps get DNA’s message out to the ribosomes...

I can help!


First dna unzips itself

ATGACGATT proteins...

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...

  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.


First dna unzips itself1

ATGACGATT proteins...

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...

  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.


First dna unzips itself2

ATGACGATT proteins...

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...

  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.


First dna unzips itself3

ATGACGATT proteins...

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...

  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.


First dna unzips itself4

ATGACGATT proteins...

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...

  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.


Iv transcription
IV. Transcription proteins...

  • The process of going DNA to mRNA


Iv transcription1
IV. Transcription proteins...

b. The steps of transcription:

1. First DNA unzips itself along the

segment of code needed for a certain

protein.

2. mRNA is made by forming

complementary bases on the

unzipped portion of DNA.


Iv transcription2
IV. Transcription proteins...

b. The steps of transcription:

3. DNA’s code is copied into groups of

3 bases at a time called a codon.

4. Each codon codes for 1 amino acid.

5. Once the mRNA strand is

transcribed, it can leave the nucleus

to find a ribosome to carry out the

next step.


Next mrna is made

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion


Next mrna is made1

U proteins...

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion


Next mrna is made2

U proteins...

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion


Next mrna is made3

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UA


Next mrna is made4

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UA


Next mrna is made5

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UAC


Next mrna is made6

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UAC


Next mrna is made7

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACU


Next mrna is made8

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACU


Next mrna is made9

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUG


Next mrna is made10

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUG


Next mrna is made11

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGC


Next mrna is made12

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGC


Next mrna is made13

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCU


Next mrna is made14

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCU


Next mrna is made15

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCUA


Next mrna is made16

ATGACGATT proteins...

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCUA


Next mrna is made17

ATGACGATT proteins...

UACUGCUAA

Next, mRNA is made...

  • mRNA is made from the DNA template

  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complementary fashion


Some additional notes about making mrna
Some additional notes about making mRNA… proteins...

  • DNA contains many non-coding regions, also known as “junk DNA”

  • RNA is not made from the junk DNA


Mrna leaves the nucleus

UACUGCUAA proteins...

mRNA leaves the nucleus...

I hope he can

tell them what

to do!

  • DNA’s code is copied to mRNA in three letter groups called codons.

  • After mRNA is made from the DNA template, it is ready to leave the nucleus.


The next step translation

UACUGCUAA proteins...

The next step...Translation

mRNA meets the Ribosomes!

(No, it’s not a new sitcom on FOX…)


Mrna tries to talk to the ribosomes

I have a message proteins...

for you! It’s

from DNA!

UACUGCUAA

It’s always

something!

mRNA tries to talk to the ribosomes…

  • mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm, where the ribosomes are located.

What does

he want now?

Once there, mRNA

meets up with the

ribosomes


Mrna tries to talk to the ribosomes but is unsuccessful

Why don’t they proteins...

get it???

@%$!!

UACUGCUAA

We need a

translator!

mRNA tries to talk to the ribosomes…but is unsuccessful.

Why can’t we tell

what he’s saying?

  • However, the ribosomes cannot understand the message mRNA is carrying.


Trna saves the day

Tyrosine proteins...

UACUGCUAA

AUG

Where is that

translator?

tRNA Saves the Day!

We won’t work until

we know what to do!

Looks like trouble

for this cell…

I’d better help!

The boss will NOT

be happy about

this...

Now the cell can make a protein!


Trna transfer rna
tRNA: Transfer RNA proteins...

  • Chemically, tRNA is clover-leaf shaped.

  • At one end, it carries an amino acid (like a tow truck).

  • At the other end, it has a three letter code known as an anticodon.

Tyrosine

AUG


Anticodon what s that

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Anticodon? What’s that?

Tyrosine

  • This anticodon is the complement to the codons contained within mRNA.

  • Can you find the mRNA complement to the anticodon on tRNA?

AUG


Some notes about amino acids
Some notes about Amino Acids proteins...

  • There are 20 known amino acids present in living things.

  • How is it possible to get a group of four letters to code for 20 things?

  • Put them into groups of three…

    • 43 = 64 codes

Number of members in a group of nitrogen bases

Number of nitrogen bases


What s a codon anyway
What’s a codon, anyway? proteins...

  • Here is what a codon looks like. It is a sequence of 3 bases.

  • How we determine what amino acid each codon codes for must be read off of a codon chart.

  • This is also known as the genetic code.


Codon chart

U proteins...

C

A

G

U

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine

Leucine

Leucine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Tyrosine

Tyrosine

Stop

Stop

Cysteine

Cysteine

Stop

Tryptophan

U

C

A

G

Second Base

C

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Proline

Proline

Proline

Proline

Histidine

Histidine

Glutamine

Glutamine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

First

Base

Third

Base

A

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Methionine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Asparagine

Asparagine

Lysine

Lysine

Serine

Serine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

G

Valine

Valine

Valine

Valine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Aspartic Acid

Aspartic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

UCAG

Codon chart


Other codon charts
Other Codon Charts proteins...


Reading a codon chart
Reading a Codon Chart proteins...

  • It is possible for some amino acids to have more than one codon.

  • There are three stop codons…they are UAA, UGA and UAG.

  • There is also one START codon…AUG.


How a translator works

Methionine proteins...

AUGUGCUAA

UAC

How a Translator works…

  • First, the anticodons on tRNA meet up with the mRNA start codon (AUG) at the ribosome.

  • Next, another tRNA meets up with it’s corresponding mRNA.

  • Each tRNA carries an amino acid.


How a translator works1

Methionine proteins...

AUGUGCUAA

UAC

How a Translator works…

  • Once two amino acids are made, a bond forms between them.

  • This process continues until a stop codon on mRNA is reached.


Here s the process animated

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

Note: this is a really basic representation of this process!


Here s the process animated1

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!


Here s the process animated2

UACUGCUAA proteins...

AUG

tyrosine

Here’s the process…animated!


Here s the process animated3

UACUGCUAA proteins...

AUG

tyrosine

Here’s the process…animated!


Here s the process animated4

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine


Here s the process animated5

UACUGCUAA proteins...

ACG

threonine

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine


Here s the process animated6

UACUGCUAA proteins...

ACG

threonine

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine


Here s the process animated7

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine


Here s the process animated8

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine


Here s the process animated9

UACUGCUAA proteins...

AUU

isoleucine

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine


Here s the process animated10

UACUGCUAA proteins...

AUU

isoleucine

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine


Here s the process animated11

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

isoleucine


Here s the process animated12

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

isoleucine


Here s the process animated13

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

isoleucine


Here s the process animated14

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

isoleucine


Here s the process animated15

UACUGCUAA proteins...

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

isoleucine


Animation of translation

Animation of translation proteins...

Click to automatically start animation.


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G proteins...

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

Nucleus


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This is a ribosome. proteins...

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

Single Messenger RNA Strand


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Met proteins...

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


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Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


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Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


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Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Arg proteins...

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Gly proteins...

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Met

Arg

Gly

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Met

Arg

Gly

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


Warm up 3111800

Lys proteins...

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA


How does it know when to quit

STOP proteins...

How Does it Know When to Quit?

  • This process continues until a stop or a termination codon (found on mRNA) is reached.

  • There are three stop codons: UGA, UAA and UAG.


Regulation of transcription and translation
Regulation of Transcription and Translation proteins...

  • Think about your house, do you keep all the lights on ALL the time in every room??

  • Gene expression is a regulated process where genes can be turned on and off as needed due to environmental factors.


In summary
In summary… proteins...

  • DNA contains the information needed to make proteins.

  • However, DNA is too large to leave the nucleus.

  • RNA acts as a set of working instructions for ribosomes to make proteins.

  • This process is also known as gene expression.

  • Gene expression is a regulated process.


Warm up 3111800