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Mineral Identification. 2. Physical Properties — Mineral Appearance. Color and appearance are two obvious clues that can be used to identify minerals. Some other properties to study include how hard a mineral is, how it breaks, and its color when crushed into a powder. Mineral Identification.

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slide1

Mineral Identification

2

Physical Properties— Mineral Appearance

  • Color and appearance are two obvious clues that can be used to identify minerals.
  • Some other properties to study include how hard a mineral is, how it breaks, and its color when crushed into a powder.
slide2

Mineral Identification

2

Hardness

  • A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched is its hardness.
  • Sometimes the concept of hardness is confused with whether or not a mineral will break.
  • It is important to understand that even though a diamond is extremely hard, it can shatter if given a hard blow in the right direction along the crystal.
slide3

Mineral Identification

2

Mohs Scale

  • In 1824, the Austrian scientist Friedrich Mohs developed a list of common minerals to compare their hardnesses.
  • This list is called Mohs scale of hardness.
slide4

Mineral Identification

2

Luster

  • The way a mineral reflects light is known as luster.
  • Luster can be metallic or nonmetallic.
  • Minerals with a metallic luster shine like metal.
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Mineral Identification

2

Luster

  • When a mineral does not shine like a metal, its luster is nonmetallic.
  • Terms for nonmetallic luster include dull, pearly, silky, and glassy.
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Mineral Identification

2

Specific Gravity

  • Minerals also can be distinguished by comparing the weights of equal-sized samples.
  • Thespecific gravity of a mineral is the ratio of its weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water.
  • Specific gravity is expressed as a number.
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Mineral Identification

  • Streak is the color of

a mineral when it is in a powdered form.

2

Streak

  • When a mineral is rubbed across a piece of unglazed porcelain tile, a streak of powdered mineral is left behind.
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Mineral Identification

2

Streak

  • The streak test works only for minerals that are softer than the streak plate.
  • Some soft minerals will leave a streak even on paper.
  • The last time you used a pencil to write on paper, you left a streak of the mineral graphite.
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Mineral Identification

2

Cleavage and Fracture

  • The way a mineral breaks is another clue to its identity.
  • Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces have cleavage (KLEE vihj).
  • Cleavage is determined partly by the arrangement of the mineral’s atoms.
slide10

Mineral Identification

2

Cleavage and Fracture

  • Not all minerals have cleavage.
  • Minerals that break with uneven, rough, or jagged surfaces have fracture.
  • Quartz is a mineral with fracture.
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Mineral Identification

2

Other Properties

  • Some minerals have unique properties.
  • Magnetite is attracted to magnets.
slide12

Mineral Identification

2

Other Properties

  • Quartz Light forms two separate rays when it passes through calcite, causing you to see a double image when viewed through transparent specimens.
slide13

Minerals

2

Question 1

The Mohs scale uses __________ to compare minerals.

A. cleavage

B. color

C. hardness

D. luster

slide14

Minerals

2

Answer

The answer is C. The Mohs scale, developed by Friedrich Mohs, rates the hardness of minerals from one to ten.

slide15

Minerals

2

Question 2

Minerals that break easily along smooth, flat surfaces have __________.

A. cleavage

B. fracture

C. luster

D. streak

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Minerals

2

Answer

The answer is A. Cleavage is determined partly by the arrangement of the mineral’s atoms. Minerals that break with uneven surfaces have fracture.

slide17

Minerals

2

Question 3

Which of the following minerals will pick up iron filings?

A. calcite

B. feldspar

C. lodestone

D. quartz

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Minerals

2

Answer

The answer is C. Lodestone is a variety of magnetite and is a natural magnet.