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Data and Spreadsheets

- What are data?
- What are statistics?
- What are spreadsheets?
- How can you analyze data with spreadsheets?

Data

- Data are pieces of information that can define subjects
- Data can be numbers, words, descriptions
- The word data is PLURAL, datum is singular
- Example of Data about George:
- Age: 57.2 (years)
- 43rd President
- Male
- Favorite letter: W
- Favorite words: Bring them on.

Types of Data

- Numbers – two types
- Real #s – rational numbers – 57 years
- Integers – whole numbers – 170 lbs
- Letters – called characters in programming
- W is a character
- Words – called strings in programming
- “Bring them on” is a strings, can be individual words or phrases
- Other : Image, Sound…

Test Scores:

Jeff: 88

Mollie: 92

Marcie: 88

Dave: 47

Karim: 99

Willoughby: 6

Benjamin: 0

What statistics can you calculate to describe these data?

Try to think of four things to describe the data

stop

Statistics and DataStatistics

- Statistics are derived from the data
- Statistics are descriptions of data
- Statistics are meant to simplify the data
- Statistics can be misleading

Typical Statistics

- Sample Size - number of individuals measured = n
- Sum = S
- Average or Mean = S/n
- Median
- Value of 50th percentile, half of values fall above, half below
- Maximum, Minimum, Range (Max-Min)
- Mode - most common value
- Standard deviation
- Variance (SD2)

Mean, max, min, range, median, mode

18

33

4

47

49

38

29

4

55

sample size (n)

Mode

Sum S

mean=average=S/n

median = halfway

Variance =S(x-mean)2/n

Analyze these data...Spreadsheets

- Spreadsheets are tables
- Spreadsheets allow calculations and manipulations of data
- Calculations: mean, standard deviation
- Manipulations: sort,
- Visualizations: plot, pie chart

Spreadsheet Design Questions

- What numbers are you starting with?
- What numbers do you need to calculate?
- What are the relationships among the numbers to perform these calculations?
- What text do you need to make the spreadsheet clear to yourself and other people?

Make a data table:

- Fly 1, length 13.4 mm, velocity 27 Kph, age 21 days
- Fly 2, length 9.4 mm, velocity 0 Kph, age 220 days
- Fly 3, length 9.3 mm, velocity 44 Kph, age 1 days
- Fly 4, length 13.4 mm, velocity 17 Kph, age 32 days
- Fly 5, length 17.4 mm, velocity 33 Kph, age 11 days
- How many columns?
- How many rows?
- #s go down or across?

Microsoft Excel

- Typical spreadsheet program
- VisiCalc is original commercial spreadsheet
- Lotus 1-2-3 took over in the 1980s.
- Has similar controls to MS Word
- Now allows graphing (charts)
- Excel tables and graphs can be copied into MS Word

Excel Basic

- Data are stored in cells.
- Cells are name by Letters and numbers e.g. A12. This is also called cell reference.
- Cells can hold number, text, image, and most important thing: Formula.
- Formulas are started with a “=” sign. It can be any mathematical operations.

Friday’s Assignment

- We will work with Microsoft Excel to analyze some data
- Groups of two will submit one finished spreadsheet for the assignment

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