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Sensory Memory and Short-Term (Working) Memory. General Plan. 1960s Many models of memory proposed Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)-Modal Model Sensory Memory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory. William James. Primary Memory Secondary Memory. Atkinson & Shiffrin Model of Memory (1968).

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Sensory Memory and Short-Term (Working) Memory


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    1. Sensory Memory and Short-Term (Working) Memory

    2. General Plan • 1960s Many models of memory proposed • Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)-Modal Model • Sensory Memory • Short-term Memory • Long-term Memory

    3. William James • Primary Memory • Secondary Memory

    4. Atkinson & Shiffrin Model of Memory (1968)

    5. Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory STM Bottleneck

    6. Properties of the Different Memory Stores

    7. Characteristics of the Memory Stores

    8. Research on the A & S Model • Serial Position Effect • Recency Effect • Kintsch & Buschke (1969) • Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence

    9. Serial Position Effect Demo

    10. Serial Position Effect Graph Primacy Effect Recency Effect

    11. Rundus (1971)

    12. Questions • How could we test the idea that the last few items are in STS? • How can we test that the primacy effect represents LTS?

    13. Eliminating the Recency Effect

    14. Other Evidence: Kintsch & Bushchke (1969)

    15. Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction • H.M. - Epileptic - Temporal Lobes / Hippocampus - STM ---> LTM disrupted • K.F. - Damage to Left Cerebral Cortex - LTM Normal - STM capacity severely limited

    16. Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction The dog bit the man and the man died. vs. The man the dog bit died.

    17. Evidence Against A & S • More recent research challenges the strict coding distinction • Recency Effect challenged • Neuroscience evidence

    18. Atkinson & Shiffrin Model of Memory (1968)

    19. The Sensory Store

    20. Lightning

    21. Lightning Demo

    22. Lightning Questions

    23. Sensory Memory • Sensory memory or sensory register • Visual, auditory, touch, taste, smell • Relatively raw, unprocessed form

    24. Why Do We Need Sensory Memory? • Stimuli change • Maintain for selection and further processing • Integrate fragments of a stimuli into a single unitary perception

    25. Classic Studies • Sperling (1960) • Averbach & Sperling (1961)

    26. A Tachistoscope

    27. Tachistoscopic Display - Blank

    28. Fixation Point *

    29. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 1 J Z G B S X P L R M Q F

    30. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 1

    31. Tachistoscopic Display Blank 2

    32. Fixation Point *

    33. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 2 Y Q C H N D R J V B K S

    34. Tachistoscopic Letter Display 2

    35. Schematic of Typical Sperling Exp

    36. Number of Letters Recalled as a Function of Technique & Delay

    37. Sensory Memory Demo

    38. Iconic Memory • Location • Usefulness • Saccades • Nature of the code

    39. Letters & Numbers (Early vs. Late Processing Issue) 1 K 5 L H J 3 B 7 D 8 T

    40. Demo 4.1: Examples of Sensory Memory

    41. Demo 4.2 Unitary Perception from Fragments

    42. Auditory Sensory Memory • Neisser (1967) - Echoic memory and the echo • Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) • Differences from iconic memory • Crowder (1982)

    43. An Echoic Memory Study

    44. Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder

    45. Discriminating Between Two Sounds (Crowder, 1982) Graph

    46. Short-Term Memory

    47. Short-Term Memory • Nature of Forgetting • Duration • Nature of Code • Capacity

    48. Short Term Memory • Brown/Peterson & Peterson (1959) • Trigram task

    49. Trigrams K X J P L G S Y T H Z R

    50. Brown-Peterson Results