Sensory Memory and Short-Term (Working) Memory. General Plan. 1960s Many models of memory proposed Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)-Modal Model Sensory Memory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory. William James. Primary Memory Secondary Memory. Atkinson & Shiffrin Model of Memory (1968).
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General Plan • 1960s Many models of memory proposed • Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)-Modal Model • Sensory Memory • Short-term Memory • Long-term Memory
William James • Primary Memory • Secondary Memory
Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory STM Bottleneck
Research on the A & S Model • Serial Position Effect • Recency Effect • Kintsch & Buschke (1969) • Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence
Serial Position Effect Graph Primacy Effect Recency Effect
Questions • How could we test the idea that the last few items are in STS? • How can we test that the primacy effect represents LTS?
Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction • H.M. - Epileptic - Temporal Lobes / Hippocampus - STM ---> LTM disrupted • K.F. - Damage to Left Cerebral Cortex - LTM Normal - STM capacity severely limited
Behavioral Neuroscience Evidence for the STM-LTM Distinction The dog bit the man and the man died. vs. The man the dog bit died.
Evidence Against A & S • More recent research challenges the strict coding distinction • Recency Effect challenged • Neuroscience evidence
Sensory Memory • Sensory memory or sensory register • Visual, auditory, touch, taste, smell • Relatively raw, unprocessed form
Why Do We Need Sensory Memory? • Stimuli change • Maintain for selection and further processing • Integrate fragments of a stimuli into a single unitary perception
Classic Studies • Sperling (1960) • Averbach & Sperling (1961)
Tachistoscopic Letter Display 1 J Z G B S X P L R M Q F
Tachistoscopic Letter Display 2 Y Q C H N D R J V B K S
Iconic Memory • Location • Usefulness • Saccades • Nature of the code
Letters & Numbers (Early vs. Late Processing Issue) 1 K 5 L H J 3 B 7 D 8 T
Auditory Sensory Memory • Neisser (1967) - Echoic memory and the echo • Darwin, Turvey, & Crowder (1972) • Differences from iconic memory • Crowder (1982)
Short-Term Memory • Nature of Forgetting • Duration • Nature of Code • Capacity
Short Term Memory • Brown/Peterson & Peterson (1959) • Trigram task
Trigrams K X J P L G S Y T H Z R