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Robofest 2007 NXT Programming Workshop Jan. 27, 2007 CJ Chung Associate Professor of Computer Science Lawrence Tech University CHUNG@LTU.edu www.Robofest.net. Assistant . Joe Long. Agenda. Intro to NXT Construction of NXT basic model: TriBot

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Robofest 2007NXT Programming WorkshopJan. 27, 2007CJ ChungAssociate Professor of Computer ScienceLawrence Tech UniversityCHUNG@LTU.eduwww.Robofest.net

chung

assistant
Assistant
  • Joe Long

chung

agenda
Agenda
  • Intro to NXT
  • Construction of NXT basic model: TriBot
  • Intro to NXT programming Language: Move, Loop, Sensors, Wait, Display, Switches, and My Blocks
  • 9 Class Missions (somewhat related to the Robofest Game 2007, Miner Rescue)
  • Programming Tips

chung

robots to be used tribot
Robots to be used: TriBot
  • Robo Center, Quick Start Vehicle or small booklet in the retail version box
  • Left motor: A
  • Right motor: C

chung

alternative guide to build the tribot retail version
Alternative guide to build the TriBot (Retail Version)
  • Launch the software, Mindstorms NXT
  • Robo Center -> Vehicles Quick Start -> TriBot Go -> Driving Base

chung

software installation
Software Installation
  • Usually be positive! Yes, Yes, Yes,…
  • After the installation you will see the following icon on your desktop

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exercise 0 first nxt program go forward for 2 sec and stop 1 3
Exercise 0 (First NXT program): Go forward for 2 sec. and stop (1/3)
  • Let’s name the program first
  • Click on Go >> button
  • You’ll see a programming palette

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first nxt program go forward for 2 sec and stop 2 3
First NXT program: Go forward for 2 sec. and stop (2/3)
  • Click on Move button
  • Drag and drop the move block to the canvas

A C

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first nxt program go forward for 2 sec and stop 3 3
First NXT program: Go forward for 2 sec. and stop (3/3)
  • Change parameters for the Move
    • Port
    • Direction
    • Steering
    • Power
    • Duration
    • Next Action

Block

Configuration Panel

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how to run your 1 st program 2 2
How to run your 1st program (2/2)
  • If “Found New Hardware” pops up, just follow the instruction
  • Click on “Download” button
  • Recommended to un-plug the cable from the bot
  • Press the orange button 4 times (Turn on, My files, Software files, Run your program entitled go2stop)

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how to rerun the program
How to rerun the program
  • Check the program name on the LCD
  • Press the orange button just once again

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embedded rotation sensor
Embedded Rotation Sensor
  • Each motor has an embedded rotation sensor
  • 360 counts per rotation
  • The counter can be incremented or decremented
  • Distance traveled for a rotation of a wheel can be calculated: Circumference = 2 x radius x π

chung

find out the distance a rotation of the wheels will travel metric
Find out the distance a rotation of the wheels will travel (metric)
  • Method 1: Write a program to go for a rotation then measure the distance: almost 17cm
  • Method 2
    • Measure the diameter of the wheels: 5.5 cm
    • Calculate Circumference: diameter x π
    • 5.5cm x π = 17.27cm

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making turns

stop

Left wheel

Right wheel

Left wheel

Right wheel

stop

Left wheel

Right wheel

Making Turns
  • Turn left:
  • Spin left: (point turn)
  • Face left:

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sensors
Sensors
  • Light
  • Touch
  • Ultrasonic (Distance measurement)
  • Sound (microphone)
  • Rotation – embedded in the motors
  • Timer – Internal sensor
  • Received Bluetooth messages
  • NXT buttons

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light sensor
Light Sensor
  • Percent mode
    • 5% - lowest dark
    • 100% - very bright
  • Reflected light mode: shines a red light
  • The light can be turned off – detecting ambient (surrounding light)
  • Live updates: See lower left corner, if your robot is connected to the computer via either USB or Bluetooth

chung

light sensor ii
Light Sensor II
  • Press View | Select “Reflected Light” | Select input port number
    • On white area: 55%-65%
    • On black area: 43%-48%
  • If Live Update value is quite different from the View value, light sensor calibration was done (using menu Tools). Either use default or update firmware, to reset.
  • Light value is affected by the gap between the sensor and the floor

chung

light sensor readings
Light Sensor Readings

Source: HighTechKids.org

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attach a light sensor
Attach a Light Sensor
  • Facing down
  • Gap: around 0.5 cm -1 cm (What will be the problem if too close to the floor to solve the Miner Rescue problem?)
  • Port No. 1

chung

comments
Comments
  • Use balloon text tool
  • Add the following information
    • Author, when
    • Who made changes, when
    • How to use
    • Functions
    • Block descriptions
    • Assumptions: 1 - light
    • Expected results
    • Known bugs
    • Rooms to improve
    • Etc.

chung

measure light sensor values on the miner rescue field
Measure Light Sensor Values on the Miner Rescue field
  • White:
  • Black:
  • Foil:
  • Outside Edge:
  • Crack (gap) between home base and ramp:
  • Approaching down ramp
  • Approaching up ramp

chung

the gap between the light sensor and the floor
The gap between the Light sensor and the floor!!!
  • Both Reflected and Ambient light values are affected by the distance between the sensor and the floor!
  • The light sensor value is in inverse proportion to the gap

Light

sensor

Light

sensor

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how about stopping at the 4 th line
How about stopping at the 4th line?
  • Loop (Repeat) Block

Count = 4

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touch sensor
Touch Sensor
  • Press View | Select Touch | Select input port number
  • If released (not pressed): 0
  • If pressed: 1
  • Is it sensitive? – it seems not
  • NXT-G can handle “Bumped” - (pressed and released) or (released and pressed)

chung

attach a touch sensor
Attach a Touch Sensor
  • Port No. 2

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ex 5 loop until a touch sensor is pressed
Ex. 5 Loop until a touch sensor is pressed

Display seconds until touch sensor is pressed.

chung

ex 6 follow the black line until a touch sensor is pressed
Ex 6. Follow the black line until a touch sensor is pressed

For Robofest field, the power

should be less than 40

Switch

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ex 7 follow the line until it detects the foil
Ex 7. Follow the line until it detects the foil
  • Need more power to climb
  • Use rotation sensor to locate the robot

chung

how to improve line following
How to improve line following?
  • Three way branch
  • Use two light sensors
  • http://home.earthlink.net/~xaos69/NXT/Line_Follower/Line_Follower.html
  • http://www.teamhassenplug.org/NXT/ - Steve H’s line following block

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my blocks
My Blocks
  • Wrap a procedure into a package
  • To do the same thing from different places; to reuse code; to make code non-redundant
  • To divide a large task into smaller meaningful modules (provide structure)
  • To hide complex details

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how to create myblocks
How to create MyBlocks
  • Start with working code
  • Highlight blocks to include
  • Click the “Create My Block” button
  • Name the MyBlock
  • Describe the MyBlock
  • Build icon(s)
  • MyBlock replaces the selected Blocks

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how to reuse the myblock
How to reuse the MyBlock
  • Select it from the Custom Tab

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ultrasonic sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor
  • Uses the same scientific principle as bats: it measures distance by caluclating the time it takes for a sound to hit an object and return – just like measuring an echo.
  • Measures in centimeters and in inches
  • 0 to 255 cm (or 0 to 100.4 inches, 8.4ft)
  • Precision of +/- 3cm (1.2 inches)
  • Press View | Select Ultrasonic cm | Select input port number

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ultrasonic sensor ii
Ultrasonic Sensor II
  • Large-sized objects with hard surfaces return the best readings
  • Objects made of soft fabric or that are curved (like a ball) or are very thin can be difficult for the sensor to detect
  • Note that two or more Ultrasonic sensors operating in the same room may interfere with each other’s reading
  • Connect an ultrasonic sensor to port no. 4

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not covered advanced topics
Not covered advanced topics
  • Variables
  • Multiple tasks & Synchronization of multiple tasks

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nxt programming tips
NXT Programming Tips
  • “Out of Memory” problem
    • Do not use sound file
    • Do not display graphics
    • Minimize number of programs on NXT
    • Delete unnecessary programs
  • Debugging
    • Gradually, not all at once
    • Display
    • Tone

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tips for robofest 2007 game
Tips for Robofest 2007 Game
  • Line following is required?
  • Ultrasonic sensor – No. 3 ball
  • May be light sensor for No. 4 ball in the tunnel
  • NXT conversion cable: you can use your existing RCX sensors and motors with the NXT brick! (3 cables for $10)

chung

where to get additional lego blocks
Where to get additional Lego blocks?
  • http://www.bricklink.com/
  • eBay for Legos

chung