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Management 11e John Schermerhorn . Chapter 13 Leading and Leadership Development. Planning Ahead — Chapter 13 Study Questions. What is the nature of leadership? What are the key leadership traits and behaviors? What are the contingency approaches to leadership?

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management 11e john schermerhorn

Management 11e John Schermerhorn

Chapter 13Leading andLeadership Development

planning ahead chapter 13 study questions
Planning Ahead — Chapter 13 Study Questions
  • What is the nature of leadership?
  • What are the key leadership traits and behaviors?
  • What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • What are current issues in personal leadership development?

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Leadership
    • The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks

Management 11e Chapter 13

figure 13 1 leading viewed in relationship to the other management functions
Figure 13.1Leading viewed in relationship to the other management functions

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership5
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Power
    • Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want
    • Power should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership6
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Two sources of managerial power:

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership7
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Position power
    • Based on a manager’s official status in the organization’s hierarchy of authority

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership8
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Personal power
    • Based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership situation

Management 11e Chapter 13

figure 13 2 sources of position power and personal power used by managers
Figure 13.2 Sources of position power and personal power used by managers

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership10
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Visionary leadership
    • Vision
      • A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs
    • Visionary leadership
      • A leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future as well as an understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership11
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership:
    • Challenge the process
    • Show enthusiasm
    • Help others to act
    • Set the example
    • Celebrate achievements

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership12
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Servant leadership
    • Commitment to serving others
    • Followers more important than leader
    • “Other centered” not “self-centered”
    • Power not a “zero-sum” quantity
    • Focuses on empowerment, not power

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 1 what is the nature of leadership13
Study Question 1: What is the nature of leadership?
  • Servant Leadership and empowerment
    • Empowerment
      • The process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence
    • Effective leaders empower others by providing them with:

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 2 what are the important leadership traits and behaviors
Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 2 what are the important leadership traits and behaviors15
Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?
  • Leadership behavior
    • Leadership behavior theories focus on how leaders behave when working with followers
    • Leadership styles are recurring patterns of behaviors exhibited by leaders
    • Basic dimensions of leadership behaviors:
      • Concern for the task to be accomplished
      • Concern for the people doing the work

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 2 what are the important leadership traits and behaviors16
Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 2 what are the important leadership traits and behaviors17
Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?
  • Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid
    • Team management
      • High task concern; high people concern
    • Authority-obedience management
      • High task concern; low people concern
    • Country club management
      • High people concern; low task concern
    • Impoverished management
      • Low task concern; low people concern
    • Middle of the road management
      • Non-committal for both task concern and people concern

Management 11e Chapter 13

figure 13 3 managerial styles in blake and mouton s leadership grid
Figure 13.3 Managerial styles in Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 2 what are the important leadership traits and behaviors19
Study Question 2: What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?
  • Classic leadership styles:
    • Autocratic style
      • Emphasizes task over people
    • Human relations style
      • Emphasizes people over task
    • Laissez-faire style
      • Shows little concern for task
    • Democratic style
      • Committed to task and people

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model
    • Good leadership depends on a match between leadership and situational demands
    • Determining leadership style:
      • Low LPC  task-motivated leaders
      • High LPC  relationship-motivated leaders
    • Leadership is part of one’s personality, and therefore relatively enduring and difficult to change
    • Leadership style must be fit to the situation

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership21
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.)
    • Diagnosing situational control:
      • Quality of leader-member relations (good or poor)
      • Degree of task structure (high or low)
      • Amount of position power (strong or weak)
    • Task oriented leaders are most successful in:
      • Very favorable (high control) situations
      • Very unfavorable (low control) situations
    • Relationship-oriented leaders are most successful in:
      • Situations of moderate control

Management 11e Chapter 13

slide22
Figure 13.4 Matching leadership style and situation: summary predictions from Fiedler’s contingency theory

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership23
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model
    • Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation
      • Readiness — how able, willing and confident followers are in performing tasks

Management 11e Chapter 13

figure 13 5 leadership implications of the hersey blanchard situational leadership model
Figure 13.5 Leadership implications of the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership25
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Hersey-Blanchard leadership styles:
    • Delegating
      • Low-task, low-relationship style
      • Works best in high readiness-situations
    • Participating
      • Low-task, high-relationship style
      • Works best in low- to moderate-readiness situations

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency theories of leadership
Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories of leadership?
  • Hersey-Blanchard leadership styles:
    • Selling
      • High-task, high-relationship style
      • Work best in moderate- to high-readiness situations
    • Telling
      • High-task, low-relationship style
      • Work best in low-readiness situations

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership27
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • House’s path-goal leadership theory
    • Effective leadership deals with the paths through which followers can achieve goals
    • Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal relationships:
      • Directive leadership
      • Supportive leadership
      • Achievement-oriented leadership
      • Participative leadership

Management 11e Chapter 13

figure 13 6 contingency relationships in the path goal leadership theory
Figure 13.6 Contingency relationships in the path-goal leadership theory

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership29
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?

House’s leadership styles:

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership30
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • When to use House’s leadership styles:
    • Use directive leadership when job assignments are ambiguous
    • Use supportive leadership when worker self-confidence is low
    • Use participative leadership when performance incentives are poor
    • Use achievement-oriented leadership when task challenge is insufficient

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership31
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Substitutes for leadership
    • Factors in the work setting that direct the work efforts without the involvement of the leader
      • Follower characteristics
        • Ability, experience, independence
      • Task characteristics
        • Routine, feedback
      • Organization characteristics
        • Clarity of plans, formalized rules and procedures

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership32
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
    • Not all people are treated the same by leaders in leadership situations
      • “In groups”
        • High LMX
      • “Out groups”
        • Low LMX

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership33
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
    • Nature of the exchange is based on presumed characteristics by the leader

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership35
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory
    • Helps leaders choose the method of decision making that best fits the nature of the problem situation
    • Basic decision-making choices:
      • Authority decision
      • Consultative decision
      • Group decision

Management 11e Chapter 13

figure 13 8 leadership implications of vroom jago leader participation model
Figure 13.8 Leadership implications of Vroom-Jago leader-participation model

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership37
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Decision-making options in the Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory:

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership38
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • Contingency factors in the Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory:

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership39
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • According to Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory, a leader should use authority-oriented decision methods when
    • The leader has greater expertise to solve a problem
    • The leader is confident and capable of acting alone
    • Others are likely to accept and implement the decision
    • Little or no time is available for discussion

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 3 what are the contingency approaches to leadership40
Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership?
  • According to Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory, a leader should use group-oriented and participative decision methods when …
    • the leader lacks sufficient information to solve a problem by himself/herself
    • the problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the situation
    • acceptance of the decision and commitment by others is necessary for implementation
    • adequate time is available for true participation

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Superleaders
    • Persons whose vision and strength of personality have an extraordinary impact on others
  • Charismatic leaders
    • Develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire others in extraordinary ways

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development43
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Transformational leadership
    • Someone who is truly inspirational as a leader and who arouses others to seek extraordinary performance accomplishments

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development44
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development45
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Emotional intelligence
    • The ability of people to manage emotions in social relationships
    • Characteristics of the emotionally intelligent leader:
      • High self-awareness
      • Motivated and persistent
      • High social awareness
      • Good self management
      • Good relationship management

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development46
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Gender and leadership
    • Gender similarities hypothesis
      • Males and females have similar psychological properties
      • Men and women can be equally effective leaders
      • Men and women are sometimes perceived as using different styles of leadership

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development47
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Women tend to use interactive leadership
    • A style that shares qualities with transformational leadership
  • Men tend to use transactional leadership
  • Interactive leadership provides a good fit with the demands of a diverse workforce and the new workplace

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development48
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Moral leadership
    • Ethical leadership that is always “good” and “right”
    • All leaders are expected to maintain high ethical standards
    • Long-term, sustainable success requires ethical behavior
    • Integrity involves the leader’s honesty, credibility, and consistency in putting values into action

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development49
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Drucker’s “old-fashioned” leadership
    • Leadership is more than charisma; it is “good old-fashioned” hard work

Management 11e Chapter 13

study question 4 what are current issues in leadership development50
Study Question 4: What are current issues in leadership development?
  • Essentials of “old-fashioned” leadership:
    • Defining and establishing a sense of mission
    • Accepting leadership as a “responsibility” rather than a rank
    • Surround yourself with talented people
    • Don’t blame others when things go wrong
    • Keep your integrity, earn trust
    • Don’t be clever, be consistent

Management 11e Chapter 13

chapter 13 case
Chapter 13 Case
  • Southwest Airlines: How Herb Kelleher led the way
for activities and assessments please visit
For activities and assessments, please visit…
  • www.wiley.com/college/schermerhorn