3B: what are the problems associated with rapid urbanisation?. Here is a spider diagram What do you think the linking idea is in the middle that is missing?.
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It worked well for towns and cities at the time.
The town/city centre, known as the Central Business District (CBD) would be at the junction of the main roads and have the shops and offices there.
The factories were built near the centre and the workers housing was close by – people needed to be able to walk to work from their small crowded terrace houses.
The foremen and managers could afford to live in semi-detached houses with gardens, that were a bit further away – not so many nasty smells and much clearer air!
The really wealthy lived in their detached residences on the outer part of the cities.
So the problems we see in the diagram were concentrated in band 2 and 3 back in the Victorian era.Land use in cities in the past
But urban areas in NICs and LEDCs that have grown up in recent times have different pattern. The central business district is still at the centre but this time the nice housing in grouped around it, sothat they have access for all the shops and cinemas and banks and offices.
Often, as in this case, the best housing takes over the best land spreading outwards along a hillside or close to a beautiful part of town. The industry needs good transport so tends to develop in wedges along the main routes to the city.
People who moved to the town for work early on built houses for themselves or it was provided as social housing when the city growth was much slower. These areas tend to have most of the essential services such as clean water and sanitation and roads. In Brazil, which this model is of, these older housing estates are called periferiaBut NICs/LEDCs the pattern of land use is different
But once urbanisation really took off, people arrived from the rural areas, made shacks wherever they could, often in areas prone to flooding for example or subject to other forms of pollution that no-one else wanted, using whatever materials were around.
They lacked paved roads and fresh water or any of the other main services, like schools and health care.
In Brazil, these are known as favelas.
It is in the outer shanty towns that you find most of problems shown in the diagram. The poor housing, lack of fresh water and sanitation, no electricity and unmade up roads are obvious problems.
Why did they occur? The people arrived faster than the city could cope – and in the early days, many cities were unwilling to try too hard.But NICs/LEDCs the pattern of land use is different
Where is it?
PUSH an area of the city limits, São Paulo is the most populous city in the Southern hemisphere. It is also the most industrialised.
1. Clearance of the slums: an area of the city limits, São Paulo is the most populous city in the Southern hemisphere. It is also the most industrialised.1970's - government decided to deal with favelas by bulldozing them - people just moved elsewhere. But in 1985 this was stopped as thegovernment changed and so did the ideas.
Large areas of shanty towns were cleared, tower blocks were then built in their place often on very steep land to house the shanty town residents. One example is the CINGAPURA HOUSING project. This has not been seen as a success
6. Transport: São Paulo, Brazil. Transport - underground metro system - improves movement of people and reduces pollution, new roads, new train and bus services, pedestrianised CBD and parking restrictions.