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PIARC TC C.2.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Safety Measures and Allocation of Resources. State of Michigan Time of Return Safety Calculation. Larry E. Tibbits Michigan Department of Transportation Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T ime o f R eturn (TOR). It is one type of cost benefit tool

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piarc tc c 2 3 cost effectiveness of safety measures and allocation of resources

PIARC TC C.2.3:Cost-Effectiveness of Safety Measures and Allocation of Resources

State of Michigan Time of Return Safety Calculation

Larry E. Tibbits

Michigan Department of Transportation

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

t ime o f r eturn tor
Time of Return (TOR)
  • It is one type of cost benefit tool
  • Estimates benefits (reducing crashes/injuries/deaths)
  • Output: the number of years required to recover the safety investment
  • Based upon Roy Jorgensen’s report on Highway Safety Improvement Criteria
why use tor
Why Use TOR
  • Federal Highway Safety Improvement Program requires that we invest safety dollars where they are needed most – where we get the greatest return
  • Helps prioritize competing safety projects
  • Verifies how the safety fix matches the demonstrated safety problem
crash data
Crash Data
  • Crash type
  • Number of crashes
  • Property damage only + minor injury (B, C)
  • Number of A injuries or number killed (people)
  • Each incident is one crash
tor components
TOR Components
  • Estimated costs of deaths and injuries from U.S. National Safety Council (http://www.nsc.org/)
  • Estimated benefits resulting from reducing crashes
  • Traffic volumes
  • Reduction in fatalities and A injuries combined
  • Reduction in minor (no A injuries or fatalities) crashes
tor components1
TOR Components
  • Q factor to blend the impact of fatalities and A injuries
  • Estimated project costs
  • Number of years of crash data used (3-5)
  • Area Factor - Urban, rural, and between
the calculation
The Calculation
  • Roy Jorgensen's Formula

BTOTAL = ADTa/ADTbx/

(QxR1+(PDOCOSTxR2))

  • BTOTAL = Total benefit in dollars over years used
  • ADTa = Average traffic volume after the improvement (assumed)
  • ADTb = Average traffic volume before the improvement
the calculation continued
The Calculation (Continued)
  • R1 = Reduction in fatalities and A-injuries combined
  • R2 = Reduction in minor (no A-injuries or fatalities) crashes
  • Q = [FATCOST+((I/FxINJCOST]/1+(I/F]
slide9
Thank You

http://www.michigan.gov/tands