F. Properties of Fluids 1. Archimedes’ Principle a. Fluids exert an upward force on objects. It is called the b

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# F. Properties of Fluids 1. Archimedes’ Principle a. Fluids exert an upward force on objects. It is called the b - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

F. Properties of Fluids 1. Archimedes’ Principle a. Fluids exert an upward force on objects. It is called the buoyant force . b. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. .

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Presentation Transcript

F. Properties of Fluids

1. Archimedes’ Principle

a. Fluids exert an upward force on objects. It is called the buoyant force.

b. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

If the weight of the displaced fluid equals the weight of the object, the object floats.

Fbuoy

Fw = Fbuoy

Object floats

Fw

If the weight of the displaced water is less than the weight of the object, the object sinks.

Fw > Fbuoy

Fbuoy

Object sinks

Fw

How can a steel ship float?

The hull contains mostly air and displaces a lot of water...enough so that Fbuoy = Fw and it floats.

2. Pascal’s Principle

a. Pressure is force per unit area.

P = F / A

b. Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.

F1

F2

The Pascal (Pa) is the SI unit for pressure

A1

A2

3. Bernoulli’s Principle

a. As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.

lower pressure

oncoming air

lift

b. The curved upper surface of a wing causes the air to flow over it faster and creates lower pressure above the wing. This makes lift.

4. The Venturi Effect

a. Fluids flow faster in narrower spaces and create lower air pressure inbetween them.

b. Strong wind between buildings.

c. Big trucks passing small cars.

d. Landscapers use trees to channel and create wind.

5. Viscosity

a. The resistance of a fluid to flow.

b. Higher

temperatures increase the movement of fluid particles and make them flow easier (lowers their viscosity).

An experiment to measure the viscosity of tar