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Advanced Diagnostic Imaging Studies. Theatre Imaging. Some Essentials. Principles of radiography/terminology Basic anatomy Operative procedures and radiographic technique Dose limitation Health & Safety. Major Directional Terms. AP Position?.

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Presentation Transcript
some essentials
Some Essentials
  • Principles of radiography/terminology
  • Basic anatomy
  • Operative procedures and radiographic technique
  • Dose limitation
  • Health & Safety
ap position
AP Position?
  • Actually PA for supine patient as beam enters posteriorly
imaging in theatres
Imaging in Theatres
  • Discussion.
    • Mobile x-ray units. (CXR etc)
    • Image Intensifier units
mobile fluoroscopy units
Mobile Fluoroscopy units
  • Flexibility
  • Ease of use
  • Safety features
  • Cross infection issues
  • Radiation protection
  • Image quality
  • Transportation / storage
  • Image storage facilities
mobile fluoroscopy units2
Mobile fluoroscopy units
  • Flexibility
    • Ability to move in small environments
    • Accurate controls
    • Full isocentric movements
    • Clear measurement markings
    • Manual handling considerations
    • Low base height
    • Foot / hand exposure devices
mobile fluoroscopy units3
Mobile fluoroscopy units
  • Ease of use
    • Laser marking facility
    • Accurate positioning
    • Hand rails Easy movement
    • Quick access interlocks
    • Simplistic design
    • Clear user features
    • Ability to manipulate data from base unit
mobile fluoroscopy units4
Mobile fluoroscopy units
  • Image review / print
    • Ability to review data on dual monitor display
    • Freeze –transfer –archive features
    • Manipulate data remotely from unit base
    • Input patient demographics
    • Ability to review “thumbnail” images
    • Ability to play movie clips
safety features
Safety Features
  • Cable protection on wheels
  • Minimal trailing cables
  • Electro-mechanical brakes
  • Counter balance construction
  • “Glide” mode
  • Key operation (IR(ME)R)
  • Handles to pull / push unit
  • Earthed units
    • Monitor & Image intensification unit
    • Cable connections
infection control
Infection Control
  • Bodily fluids

•Areas where bodily fluids may settle:

–Crevasses (Rails)


–Screw heads


•Easily cleaned surfaces

•Ability to cover with sterile drapes

radiation protection
Radiation Protection
  • Pulsing option
    • Up to 70% dose reduction
  • Visual collimator blades



  • CARE dose facility
  • Image rotation facility
  • Integrated DAP device
  • Exposure time / dose reading
  • Warning light / audible warning
limiting dose
Limiting dose
  • X-rays are potentially harmful to patients and staff
  • All radiological procedures should seek to keep dose “as low as reasonably practicable” ( ALARP)
  • This is the principle of Optimisation as stipulated in the IRRs – therefore not optional; required by law
limiting dose1
Limiting dose
  • Collimation – decreasing the size of the radiation field
    • Use of shutters or iris collimator
  • Keep intensifier face as close as possible to the patient
    • Reduces x-ray output necessary to achieve acceptable image
    • Reduces image magnification and blurring
limiting dose2
Limiting dose
  • Try to position correctly before exposing
    • Think about whether the required area is under the intensifier face before pushing expose button
    • Use of laser positioning
    • Use of anatomical landmarks
  • Lead rubber coats for staff
    • Must be worn by all in controlled area i.e the operating theatre
    • Avoid staff hiding behind other
  • Lead rubber gonad shielding for patient

Difference between adjacent densities on a radiograph

The number of black, white and grey tones that appear on a radiograph

Controlled by the energy of the x-ray beam


Main controlling factor in radiographic contrast

Selected by radiographer for every exposure

Has a major influence on quality of the radiograph

kvp and contrast
kVp and contrast

Photoelectric absorption

probability aZ3


Z atomic number

E beam energy

As kVp increases absorption by photoelectric effect rapidly decreases causing a reduction in radiographic contrast


Determines the energy of the x-ray beam

Low energy beam is easily absorbed

Differential absorption increases

High contrast

High energy beam penetrates body more easily

Differential absorption decreases

Low contrast

interprofessional working
Interprofessional Working….
  • Communication skills
  • Cooperative attitude
  • Space awareness
  • Professional performance
  • Compromise
interpreting surgeon s requirements
Interpreting surgeon’s requirements
  • Flash
  • Shot
  • Picture
  • Yes
    • All can mean “Please expose the patient and show me an image”
orthopaedic procedures
Orthopaedic procedures
  • Hip pinning
    • Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS)
    • Cannulated screws
nailing procedures
Nailing procedures
  • Femoral(most common), tibial, humeral nail
  • Intramedullary –often requires reaming (drilling) of medullary canal
  • Proximal and distal locking screws
locking screws
Locking screws
  • Proximal locking usually drill guide device
  • Distal locking trickier and done by manual location of where to drill
  • Needs to achieve round holes to enable correct angulation of drill
guidance systems
Guidance systems

Designed to make life easier for

surgeon to place locking screws

with better accuracy.

Reduces need for x-rays and

reduces time under anaesthetic.

tibial nailing
Tibial Nailing
  • Less common as tends to be less successful than femoral nail
  • Tibia has less vigorous blood supply than femur, and drilling out tends to compromise further. Problems with non-union
  • External frames becoming more popular (Taylor spatial, Ilizarov)
other procedures
Other Procedures
  • Central Lines
    • Give long-term central venous access for patients requiring it e.g chemotherapy
peripherally inserted central catheter picc line
Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line)

Typical screening position –intensifier on top

new articles
“New” Articles
  • Our role may be developing