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Principles of Electronic Communication Systems

Principles of Electronic Communication Systems

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Principles of Electronic Communication Systems

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  1. Principles of ElectronicCommunication Systems Third Edition Louis Frenzel

  2. Chapter 10 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

  3. Topics Covered in Chapter 10 • 10-1: Multiplexing Principles • 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing • 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing • 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation • 10-5: Duplexing

  4. 10-1: Multiplexing Principles • Transmitting two or more signals simultaneously can be accomplished by running multiple cables or setting up one transmitter-receiver pair for each channel, but this is an expensive approach. • A single cable or radio link can handle multiple signals simultaneously using a technique known as multiplexing. • Multiplexing permits hundreds or even thousands of signals to be combined and transmitted over a single medium.

  5. 10-1: Multiplexing Principles • Multiplexingis the process of simultaneously transmitting two or more individual signals over a single communication channel. • It increases the number of communication channels so that more information can be transmitted. • An application may require multiple signals. • Cost savings can be gained by using a single channel to send multiple information signals.

  6. 10-1: Multiplexing Principles • Four communication applications that would be prohibitively expensive or impossible without multiplexing are: • Telephone systems • Telemetry • Satellites • Broadcasting (radio and TV)

  7. 10-1: Multiplexing Principles Fig. 10-1: Concept of multiplexing.

  8. 10-1: Multiplexing Principles • The two most common types of multiplexing are • Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) • Generally used for analog information. • Individual signals to be transmitted are assigned a different frequency within a common bandwidth. • Time-division multiplexing (TDM) • Generally used for digital information. • Multiple signals are transmitted in different time slots on a single channel.

  9. 10-1: Multiplexing Principles • Another form of multiple access is known as code-division multiple access (CDMA). • Widely used in cell phone systems to allow many subscribers to use a common bandwidth simultaneously. • Uses special codes assigned to each user that can be identified.

  10. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing • In frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), multiple signals share the bandwidth of a common communication channel. • All channels have specific bandwidths. • A wide bandwidth can be shared for the purpose of transmitting many signals at the same time.

  11. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Transmitter-Multiplexers • In an FDM system, each signal to be transmitted feeds a modulator circuit. • The carrier for each modulator (fc) is on a different frequency. • The carriers are equally spaced from one another. • These carriers are referred to as subcarriers. • Each input signal is given a portion of the bandwidth. • The FDM process divides up the bandwidth of the single channel into smaller, equally spaced channels, each capable of carrying information in sidebands.

  12. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Fig. 10-2: The transmitting end of an FDM system.

  13. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Transmitter-Multiplexers • The modulator outputs containing the sideband information are added algebraically in a linear mixer. • The resulting output signal is a composite of all the modulated subcarriers. • This signal can be used to modulate a radio transmitter, or can itself be transmitted over a single channel. • The composite signal can also become one input to another multiplexed system.

  14. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Receiver-Demultiplexer • In an FDM system, a receiver picks up the signal and demodulates it, recovering the composite signal. • The composite signal is sent to a group of bandpass filters, each centered on one of the carrier frequencies. • Each filter passes only its channel and rejects all others. • A channel demodulator then recovers each original input signal.

  15. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-4: The receiving end of an FDM system.

  16. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telemetry • Sensors in telemetrysystems generate electrical signals that change in some way in response to changes in physical characteristics. • An example of a sensor is a thermistor, a device used to measure temperature. • A thermistor’s resistance varies inversely with temperature.

  17. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telemetry • The thermistor is usually connected into a resistive network, such as a voltage divider or bridge. • The thermistor is also connected to a DC voltage source. • The result is a DC output voltage which varies in accordance with temperature. • This voltage is transmitted to a remote receiver for measurement, readout, and recording. • The thermistor becomes one channel of an FDM system.

  18. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telemetry • The varying direct or alternating current changes the frequency of an oscillator operating at the carrier frequency. • Such a circuit is called a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) or subcarrier oscillator (SCO). • Most VCOs are astable multivibrators whose frequency is controlled by the input from the signal conditioning circuits. • A system that uses FM of the VCO subcarriers as well as FM of the final carrier is called FM/FM.

  19. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-5: An FDM telemetry transmitting system.

  20. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-7: An FM/FM telemetry receiver

  21. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telemetry • On the receiving end of a telemetry system, an FM demodulator reproduces the original composite multiplexed signal, which is then fed to a demultiplexer. • The demultiplexer divides the signals and reproduces the original inputs. • The output of the first FM demodulator is fed simultaneously to multiple bandpass filters, each of which is tuned to the center frequency of one of the specified subchannels.

  22. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telemetry • Each filter passes only its subcarrier and related sidebands and rejects all the others. • The demultiplexing process essentially uses filters to sort the composite multiplex signal back into its original components. • The output of each filter is the subcarrier oscillator frequency with its modulation.

  23. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telemetry • These signals are then applied to FM demodulators. Also known as discriminators,these circuits take the FM signal and recreate the original dc or ac signal produced by the transducer. • The original signals are measured or processed to provide the desired information from the remote transmitting source. • In most systems, the multiplexed signal is sent to a data recorder where it is stored for possible future use.

  24. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Telephone Systems • For decades, telephone companies used FDM to send multiple telephone conversations over a minimum number of cables. • The original voice signal, in the 300- to 3000-Hz range is used to modulate a subcarrier. • Lower sideband (LSB) SSB AM was used. • Each subcarrier is on a different frequency. Those subcarriers are added together to form one channel. • The FDM system has been replaced by an all-digital time multiplexing (TDM) system.

  25. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: Cable TV • In a cable TV system, TV signals, each in its own 6-MHz channel, are multiplexed on a common coaxial or fiber-optic cable and sent to homes. • Each 6-MHz channel carries the video and voice of the TV signal. • Coaxial and fiber-optic cables have an enormous bandwidth and can carry more than one hundred TV channels. • Many cable TV companies also use their cable system for Internet access.

  26. 10-2: Frequency-Division Multiplexing FDM Applications: FM Stereo Broadcasting • In recording original stereo, two microphones are used to generate two separate audio signals. • Two microphones pick up sound from a common source, such as voice, but from different directions. • The separation of the two microphones provides sufficient differences in the two audio signals to provide a realistic reproduction of the original sound. • FDM techniques are used to transmit these independent signals by a single transmitter.

  27. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing • In FDM, multiple signals are transmitted over a single channel, each signal being allocated a portion of the spectrum within that bandwidth. • In time-division multiplexing (TDM), each signal occupies the entire bandwidth of the channel. • Each signal is transmitted for only a brief period of time. • TDM can be used with both digital and analog signals.

  28. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-12: The basic TDM concept.

  29. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing • Sampling an analog signal creates pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). • The analog signal is converted to a series of constant-width pulses whose amplitude follows the shape of the analog signal. • The original analog signal is recovered by passing it through a low-pass filter. • In TDM using PAM, a circuit called a multiplexer (MUX or MPX) samples multiple analog signal sources; the pulses are interleaved and transmitted over one channel.

  30. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-13: Sampling an analog signal to produce pulse-amplitude modulation.

  31. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing PAM Multiplexer • The simplest time multiplexer operates like a single-pole multiple-position mechanical or electronic switch. • It rapidly, sequentially samples multiple analog inputs. • The switch arm dwells momentarily on each contact. • This allows the input signal to be passed to the output. • It then switches quickly to the next channel, allowing that channel to pass for a fixed duration. • The remaining channels are sampled in the same way.

  32. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-14: Simple rotary-switch multiplexer.

  33. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing PAM Multiplexer • Four different analog signals can be sampled by a PAM multiplexer. In the following slide of Figure 10-15: • Signals A and C are continuously varying analog signals. • Signal B is a positive-going linear ramp. • Signal D is a constant DC voltage.

  34. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-15: Four-channel PAM time-division multiplexer.

  35. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing PAM Multiplexer: Commutator Switches • Multiplexers in early TDM/PAM telemetry systems used a form of rotary switch known as a commutator. • One complete revolution of the commutator switch is referred to as a frame. During one frame, each input channel is sampled one time. • The number of frames completed in 1 second is called the frame rate. • Multiplying the frame rate by the number of samples per frame yields the commutation rate or multiplex rate, which is the basic frequency of the composite signal transmitted over the communication channel.

  36. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing PAM Multiplexer: Electronic Multiplexers • In practical TDM/PAM systems, electronic circuits are used instead of mechanical switches or commutators. • The multiplexer itself is usually implemented with FETs. • FETs are nearly ideal on/off switches and can turn off and on at very high speeds.

  37. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-16: A time-division multiplexer used to produce pulse-amplitude modulation.

  38. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Demultiplexer Circuits • Once the composite signal is received, it must be demodulated and demultiplexed. • The signal is picked up by the receiver. • The signal is sent to an FM demodulator that recovers the original PAM data. • The PAM signal is then demultiplexed into the original analog signals.

  39. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-18: A PAM demultiplexer.

  40. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Demultiplexer Circuits • The main problem encountered in demultiplexing is synchronization. • For the PAM signal to be accurately demultiplexed, the clock frequencies at the receiver demultiplexer and the transmitting multiplexer must be identical. • The sequence of the demultiplexer must also be identical to that of the multiplexer. • Such synchronization is usually carried out by a special synchronizing pulse included as a part of each frame.

  41. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Demultiplexer Circuits: Clock Recovery and Frame Synchronization • The clock for a demultiplexer is typically derived from the received PAM signal through a clock recovery circuit. • After clock pulses of the proper frequency have been obtained, the multiplexed channels must be synchronized. • This synchronization is achieved by using a special synchronizing (sync) pulse applied to one of the input channels at the transmitter.

  42. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-19: Two PAM clock recover circuits: (a) Closed loop. (b) Open loop.

  43. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-20: Frame sync pulse and comparator detector.

  44. 10-3: Time-Division Multiplexing Figure 10-21: Complete PAM demultiplexer.

  45. 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation • The most popular form of TDM uses pulse-code modulation (PCM). • With pulse-code modulation, multiple channels of digital data are transmitted in serial form. • Each channel is assigned a time slot in which to transmit one binary word of data. • The data streams from the various channels are interleaved and transmitted sequentially.

  46. 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation PCM Multiplexers • When PCM is used to transmit analog signals, the signals are sampled with a multiplexer. • The signals are then converted by an A/D converter into a series of binary numbers. • Each number is proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal at various sampling points. • These binary words are converted from parallel to serial format and then transmitted.

  47. 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation PCM Multiplexers • At the receiving end, the various channels are demultiplexed. • The original sequential binary numbers are recovered and stored in a digital memory. • They are then transferred to a D/A converter that reconstructs the analog signal.

  48. 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation Figure 10-22: A PCM system.

  49. 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation PCM Demultiplexers • At the receiving end, the PCM signal is demultiplexed and converted back into the original data. • If the PCM signal has modulated a carrier and is being transmitted by radio, the RF signal will be picked up by a receiver and demodulated. • The original serial PCM binary waveform is recovered and fed to a shaping circuit to clean up and rejuvenate the binary pulses. • The original signal is then demultiplexed by a digital demultiplexer using AND or NAND gates.

  50. 10-4: Pulse-Code Modulation Figure 10-24:A PCM receiver-demultiplexer.