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Prof. Ding Xue, Ph.D. Department of MCD Biology. 492-0271 (office) ding.xue@colorado.edu. http://mcdb.colorado.edu/labs1/xue/MCDB4426/MCDB4426.htm. Why are you taking this class?. Just for fun To get easy credits To learn how to read and think about science

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Prof. Ding Xue, Ph.D. Department of MCD Biology

492-0271 (office)

ding.xue@colorado.edu

http://mcdb.colorado.edu/labs1/xue/MCDB4426/MCDB4426.htm


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Why are you taking this class?

Just for fun

To get easy credits

To learn how to read and think about science

This might be a less boring class

None of above


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What is this class?

A different class, how science is created and done!

Combination of many fields and several model organisms

Your expectation of me?

Mostly paper discussions with a few lectures.

I will be very informal. My job is to teach and encourage you to think and to ask about Science

My expectation of you

Read

Learn

Think

Ask


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Requirement

  • Molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, maybe developmental biology

  • has time to read

  • interested in thinking

  • not to be too interested in grades as a senior

  • I will not be a traditional grader. Effort is #1, activity and participation are what I am looking for.

  • i-clicker system will be used in discussions and answering questions. So get yourself a clicker!


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Teaching contents

  • Cell signaling and Animal development-- General introduction of cell-cell signaling and its role in regulating animal development

  • Signaling molecules in cell growth and differentiation-- Signals, Receptors, and others

  • Signaling pathways in the development of model organisms

  • Signaling in Apoptosis/Programmed cell death


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Grading system

  • Two exams (take home and in class) (50%)

  • Participation in classroom discussion (40%)

  • Attendance (10%).

  • Grading in participation and discussion will emphasize whether you have read the papers thoroughly so that you can explain the figures and tables well and your willingness to discuss them more than the clarity of how you present and discuss information. In other words, my emphasis is on getting you to think about, criticize, interpret, and discuss scientific experiments without being intimidated about speaking up.


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  • Mechanisms that one cell uses to communicate and influence the behavior of another cell.

  • In a broader sense, the signaling could include environmental cues received by a cell

  • Smell

  • Light

  • Mechanic pressure

  • Heat

  • A biological molecule

  • Others


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Three ways by which cells communicate with one another

Long-ranch signaling by secreted molecules

Slow, less specific

But can signal to multiple cells

Signaling strength is distance-dependent

Contact signaling by plasma-membrane-bound molecules

Faster, very specific

But only affect a few cells

Contact signaling via GAP junctions

Very fast, very specific

Also affect a few cells


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Three strategies of cell signaling by secreted molecules

1) Endocrine

Specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones, which travel through the bloodstream to target cells

that are distributed widely throughout the body.

2) Paracrine

Cells secrete local chemical mediators to affect neighboring cells which usually are not the same cells as the signaling cell. To become a local mediator that acts only on cells in the immediate environment, these molecules are rapidly taken up by target cells, destroyed by extra-cellular enzymes, or immobilized by extra-cellular matrix.


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3) Synaptic signaling

Nervous system. Cells secrete neurotransmitters at specialized junctions called chemical synapses; the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft, typically a distance of about 50 nm, and acts only on the adjacent post-synaptic target cell.


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Comparison of endocrine and synaptic signaling

Very Fast

Slow (minutes)

Precise

Specificity depend on ligands and receptors

Not Diluted

Diluted in the blood


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The biochemistry of the cell signaling

  • The nature of the signal

  • A. Environmental cues:

  • light, chemicals, mechanical pressure, pheromones, food and heat etc.

  • B. Cellular signals

  • chemicals (Ions), hormones, peptides, lipid, growth factors, membrane bound ligand, and gas (NO and CO).

  • - hydrophilic signals: can not diffuse into a cell and signal by binding to cell surface receptor

  • - hydrophobic signals: carried by carrier protein in the blood and enter cells


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Receptors (the molecule that receives the signal)

  • 1) Ion channel-linked receptors

2) G-protein-linked seven transmembrane receptors

3) Enzyme-linked receptors:

-receptor protein kinases: tyrosine kinases, serine/thronine kinases

-receptors coupled to protein kinases

-protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors


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4) Intracellular Receptors—Steroid hormone receptors


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Proliferation

Signals

Differentiation

Death

THE DECISION OF LIFE VS. DEATH


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Which of the followings has the faster signaling speed?

Endocrine signaling

Synaptic signaling

Signaling by steroid hormone receptors

Signaling by paracrine

All have similar speeds