GMPLS. GMPLS. ASON Automatic switched optical network (ASON) Framework for control plane of optical networks Facilitates set-up, modification, reconfiguration, and release of Switched connections Controlled by clients (e.g., IP, ATM, SONET/SDH) Soft-permanent connections
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=> IP/MPLS can replace ATM for TE & SONET/SDH for protection/restoration
=> Labeled IP packets can have one, two, or more labels <=> only two labels in ATM networks (VCI/VPI)
=> Allows to build arbitrary LSP hierarchies
=> Increased control overhead & set-up delay
=> Protection bandwidth goes unused during failure-free operation