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Chapter 9. Discussion and Review. Islam The Religion and a Way of Life. Muhammad the Prophet. Born about 570 CE He is not seen as a god or a savior He is the messenger of God Received revelations from angel Gabriel. The Basic Teachings of Islam.

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Discussion and Review

muhammad the prophet
Muhammad the Prophet
  • Born about 570 CE
  • He is not seen as a god or a savior
  • He is the messenger of God
  • Received revelations from angel Gabriel
the basic teachings of islam
The Basic Teachings of Islam
  • Islam (surrender to the will of God) is monotheistic,
    • based on the belief in one God (Allah)
  • Based on the teachings of the Quran
    • Contain words of Allah
  • Are there any similarities to Judaism and Christianity?
five pillars of islam
Five Pillars of Islam
  • All Muslims accept five duties
  • faith “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger
  • daily prayer (5 times facing Mecca)
  • charity to the poor
  • fasting during Ramadan (9th month of Islamic calendar; Quran was revealed to Muhammad
  • hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca(once in lifetime)
some of muhammad s teachings
Some of Muhammad’s Teachings
  • Each person is responsible for their own behavior
  • All are should be humble, show mercy and give.
  • If you have nothing to give you can give a smile
  • All believers are spiritually equal
  • Allah will judge each person and based upon their actions, he will send them to heaven or hell for eternity.

Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)

Pilgrims camp outside waiting to kiss

the Kaaba’s black stone



Built by Abraham

Reclaimed from pagan Arabs by Muhammad


Black Stone

The Hajj ends as a Muslim kisses this sacred stone in the Kaaba. Must be completed once in a Muslims lifetime. This Black Stone was left untouched by Mohammad when the 100 idols were destroyed in the Kabba


Jihad or Holy War

Some authorities add a sixth pillar:Jihad means active opposition to evil and injustice, more than literal warfare.


Muhammad Flees!

  • From Mecca to Medina in 622 and becomes the political leader and leads many to embrace the faith
  • This journey becomes known as the “hijra” a turning point for Islam

Muhammad the Prophet

  • Muhammad leads 10,000 back to Mecca and captures the city
  • He destroys the idols in the Kaaba
  • Unified Arabia by the time of his death in 632

Sources of Islamic Doctrine

  • Koran/Quran (holy book):
    • 114 suras, collections of Mohammed’s teachings with no overall theme
    • Considered sacred word of God and is a complete guide for life

Islam as a Way of Life

  • The Islamic system of law, called Sharia, regulated moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community.
  • How do you convert to Islam?
  • Gradually learn about Islam
  • Must cite “there is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger”

The Schism: Division of Islam


  • Succession to Caliphate (successor of Mohammed)
  • Worldliness of Caliphs, discrimination against non-Arab Muslims

Iranian Shiite Woman

Sunnis and Shiites: Find Common Ground?


Movements Within Islam

Shortly after Muhammad’s death, divisions arose within Islam.




Believed caliph, or successor to Muhammad, should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community.

Viewed caliph as a leader, not as a religious authority.

Believed that only descendents of Muhammad could become caliph.

Believed descendents of Muhammad to be divinely inspired.

Sought to communicate with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals.

These are the mystics of the Muslim world.


An Age of Conquests


  • Abus Bakr, first caliph aka successor
  • He was Muhammad’s close friend and father in law,
  • He and the next three caliph’s spread Islam throughout Syria, Spain & North Africa by military conquest.

How were the Muslims able to conquer so many lands?

  • The Byzantine and Iranian empires were weak from years of fighting each other.
  • People in the Fertile Crescent welcomed Arab conquerors as liberators.
  • The Arabs used bold, efficient fighting methods, which overwhelmed traditional armies.
  • 4. The common faith of Islam united a patchwork of tribes into a determined, unified state.
what is a caliphate
What is a Caliphate?
  • Caliph- head of state, military commander, chief judge and military leader (emperor and religious leader combined into one)
  • Caliphate (Islamic Empire – Theocracy)
succession brings trouble
Succession brings trouble
  • No clear line of Succession
  • First 4 caliphs: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali ( Ali was assasinated and succeded by his son Hasan)
  • Prominent family in Mecca (Umayyad) forced Hasan to relinquish his power and started the Umayyad Dynasty with its capital in Damascus, Syria
umayyad dynasty
Umayyad Dynasty
  • Language (Arabic)
  • Economy
    • Gold and silver became standard monetary units
  • Social
    • Conquered subjects were “encouraged” to convert or pay a tax
  • Territory
    • Expanded to northern Africa and Spain (stopped by Frankish leader Charles Martel from further advancement into Europe)
  • Spain – became center of learning; multiethnic
split shiite vs sunni
Split: Shiite Vs Sunni
  • Battle for control
  • Abu al-Abbas (a descendent of Mohamad’s uncle, supported by the descendent of Ali, Shia, and Mawali-non Arab Muslims, the Umayyad was defeated and replaced by Abbassid Dynasty in 750 (everywhere but Spain)
abbasid dynasty 750 1258
Abbasid Dynasty 750-1258
  • Golden Age
    • Arts and science flourished
    • Capital at Baghdad
    • introduced credit, receipts and bills, steel in weapons, medicine ( medical encyclopedia) and mathematics (algebra) flourished
  • Acquired knwolege from India (math) and China (paper)
  • Bulit libraries and universities and gathered information from all over the world (preserved western culture)
the role of sufis
The role of Sufis
  • Islamic mystics (missionaries)
    • Stressed a personal relationship to god
    • Encouraged followers to practice their own ways tom revere Allah, tollerant of others
    • Responsible for converting large numbers to the people of Islam

Decline of the Muslim Empire

Despite the decline of the empire,

Islam continued to link diverse people

across an enormous area.

  • Around 850, the caliphs became unable to maintain centralized control, and the empire fragmented.
  • In the 900s, Seljuk Turks invaded the Middle East and built a large empire in the Fertile Crescent.
  • In the 1200s and 1300s, Mongol invaders dominated the Middle East.