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AP GOVERNMENT COOKBOOK. Unit V: Public Policy. SYLLABUS - Unit V Description. Public Policy-

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ap government cookbook

AP GOVERNMENTCOOKBOOK

Unit V:

Public Policy.

syllabus unit v description
SYLLABUS - Unit V Description
  • Public Policy-

Public policy is the result of interactions and dynamics among actors, interests, institutions, and processes . The formation of policy agendas, the enactment of public policies by Congress and the president, and the implementation and interpretation of policies by the bureaucracy and the courts are all stages in the policy process with which students should be familiar . Students should also investigate policy networks and issue networks in the domestic and foreign policy areas . The study of these will give students a clear understanding of the impact of federalism, interest groups, parties, and elections on policy processes and policymaking in the federal context . Students should be familiar with major public policies

PAGE 1

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Public Policy Overview

Simple Definition: Public policy is a course of action adopted and pursued by a government. (Laws, regulations, philosophies, etc.)

There are TWO main avenues of Policy

Public Policy Notes:

1. Public Policy is created by iron triangles & issue networks.

Public Policy is constantly changing and evolving.

Public Policy is a summative measure of how the government views a particular topic

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Foreign Policy Formation

Top Influences on Foreign Policy:

President

State Department, led by Secretary of State

Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs

Defense Department led by Secretary of Defense

Foreign Diplomats

Foreign Governments

Interest Groups

Public Opinion

FORMAL TREATIES AND TRADE AGREEMENTS:

Negotiated by the President and State Diplomats

The Senate:

Ratified by 2/3

Passed To

EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS:

Negotiated by the President and State Diplomats

Signed into law by the President. Similar to Executive Orders. Subject to Judicial Review. Quicker than formal treaties; not as durable.

AGENTS OF FOREIGN POLICY TEND TO BE HIGHLY SPECIALIZED.

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Domestic Policy Formation

Top Influences on Domestic Policy:

President

Both Houses of Congress

Interest Groups

Federal Bureaucracy

State Governments

Public Opinion

HOW DOMESTIC POLICY FORMS

fiscal policy is a branch of domestic policy that deals with taxation and federal spending

Fiscal Policy Formation

FISCAL POLICY IS A BRANCH OF DOMESTIC POLICY THAT DEALS WITH TAXATION AND FEDERAL SPENDING

TWO TYPES OF FEDERAL SPENDING:

MANDATORY: SPENDING THAT IS DICTATED BY PREVIOUS POLICY DECISIONS. COMPOSED OF ENTITLEMENTS (SUCH AS SOCIAL SECURITY) AND INTEREST PAYMENTS ON BONDS AND LOANS.

DISCRETIONARY: SPENDING THAT IS AUTHORIZED BY THE CURRENT ADMINISTRATION. THIS SPENDING MAY EXPIRE OR BE RENEWED. (INFRASTUCTURE PROJECTS, MILITARY RESEARCH)

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Monetary Policy Formation

MONETARY POLICY IS A BRANCH OF DOMESTIC POLICY THAT DEALS WITH STEERING THE ECONOMY BY ADJUSTING THE INTEREST RATE AND MONEY SUPPLY.

slide10

The Federal Reserve Board

THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD IS AN INDEPENDENT REGULATORY AGENCY THAT IS SOLELY CONCERNED WITH MONETARY POLICY.

How does the Federal Reserve Board steer the economy?

The Federal Reserve is a unique agency in the bureaucracy, The Seven ,members of the federal reserve board are appointed by the President and serve 14 year terms.

Approximately ONE THIRD of all banks of the United States are under the oversight of the Federal Reserve Board? All national banks MUST be members. By imposing its will on national banks, the federal reserve board controls the economy.

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Trends in Policy and Budget Formation

Trends in Budget Formation:

In the last 80 years, spending on entitlement programs has been steadily INCREASING.

(EX: Social Security and Disability Benefits)

In the last 80 years, mandatory spending has become a much larger percentage of the budget than discretionary spending (EX: Loan interest and foreign debt)

Presidents and Congresses are very quick to increase spending on social programs and very slow to increase taxes. This is because raising taxes may ruin reelection chances and often leads to a budget deficit.

The United States government has seriously considered a “Balanced Budget Amendment” that would require Congress to limit spending to tax revenues.

Income tax represents the largest amount of revenue for the Federal Government.