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Absolutism. Phillip II of Spain. Married to Mary Tudor of England, but was not named King in England Ruthless, vain, and ambitious leader Devout Catholic

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Phillip ii of spain
Phillip II of Spain

  • Married to Mary Tudor of England, but was not named King in England

  • Ruthless, vain, and ambitious leader

  • Devout Catholic

  • With the Pope’s full support, Phillip began the Spanish Inquisition to force Jews and Muslims to become Catholic. He prevented Protestantism from entering into Spain


  • Phillip extended his power to the New World, the Philipines (hence the name) and to the Netherlands

  • On a serious gamble, Phillip spends most of his money and military strength on an attempt to invade England in 1588 to depose Elizabeth

  • He failed, causing Spain to lose its world power

Mary tudor
Mary Tudor

  • Concerned with converting England back to Catholicism by force

  • Burned 300 Protestant Church Leaders alive: Bloody Mary

  • Married to Phillip II of Spain.

  • Phillip used Mary to fund and supply his war against the Netherlands

  • England is left penniless

Elizabeth tudor
Elizabeth Tudor

  • Unmarried Protestant

  • Her goal is to build England into a powerful nation

  • She wants to balance the powers in Europe by taking power from Spain

  • Elizabeth hires Sea Dogs = privateers, or pirates, hired to rob Spanish Gold ships returning from America.

  • Sends aid to protestants in the Netherlands who are fighting for Independence from Spain.

  • She defeats the Spanish Armada in 1588 which was sent by Phillip to destroy Elizabeth.

  • Elizabeth sends colonists to Virginia to challenge Spain’s claim to America

King frederick of prussia
King Frederick of Prussia

  • Crowned himself King

  • To indicate that his royalty was limited to just Prussia he was forced to call himself “King in Prussia” instead of “King of Prussia”.

  • Founded 3 major Academies or Universities

  • Huge patron of the arts

Leopold i
Leopold I

  • Holy Roman Emperor

  • King of Hungary and Bohemia

  • He was a man of industry and education

  • He showed political ability

  • He regarded himself as an absolute sovereign

Charles i of england
Charles I of England

  • King Charles I had many religious conflicts.

  • Failed to successfully aid protestant forces during the Thirty Years War. He married a Roman Catholic princess.

  • The English Civil War with him in power. Afterward, in 1649, he was executed. It was a battle between a representative government - parliament - of the people

  • England proved it would not tolerate an absolute ruler. The divine right ruler (Charles I) lost - - and was beheaded to prevent any return to the absolute rule idea.

Ivan the great
Ivan the Great

  • Longest ruler of Russia

  • Unified Russia while expanding its boundaries 3x

  • Ended the reign of the Golden Horde (Monguls) by standing up and not giving in to anymore of their demands

  • He was the first to use the term czar


  • Michael Romanov was the first Czar

  • Succeeded by Peter the Great

    • Caused lots of bloodshed and torture

  • The Romanovs ruled for over 300 years

  • Ended in 1917 when the people were unhappy with Czar Nicholas II

  • The Bolsheviks ordered the killing of the entire royal family, ending their reign

Louis xiv
Louis XIV

  • Took the throne at 5 yrs, but Cardinal Mazarin ruled until Louis turned 23

  • Gained the respect of the people from giving them laws and rules that had been lacking during the war times

  • Brought the treasury out of bankruptcy

  • He was a strict Catholic, revoking the Edict of Nantes and persecuting many Protestants

  • Relocated the palace to Versailles


Versailles Statistics

  • 2,000 acres of grounds

  • 12 miles of roads

  • 27 miles of trellises

  • 200,000 trees

  • 210,000 flowers planted every year

  • 80 miles of rows of trees

  • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal

  • 12 miles of enclosing walls

  • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles

  • 21 miles of water conduits

  • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed

  • 26 acres of roof

  • 51,210 square meters of floors

  • 2,153 windows

  • 700 rooms

  • 67 staircases

  • 6,000 paintings

  • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings

  • 2,100 sculptures

  • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art

  • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden


And More Fountains!


Hall ofMirrors


The King’s Bed

The Queen’s Bed