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Semantic Roles

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  1. Semantic roles

  2. Hyponymy Definition: When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another. Examples. Animal/dog; dog/poodle; vegetable/carrot, flower/rose. With Hyponomy, we look at words in connection with others, a type of hierarchical relationship. Consider the following chart: Semantic roles

  3. Living thing Creature plant Animal insect vegetable flower tree Dog ant carrot rose plain Hyponymy

  4. Superordinate A superordinate is the higher level in the hierarchy. For example: animal and insect are called the superordinate. Co-hyponyms The words that share the same superordinate, are called co-hyponyms. Hyponymy

  5. For example: The words horse/dog are co-hyponyms of the superordinateanimal. Hyponymy

  6. Find the different hyponyms/co-hyponyms for the following words: Words: To cook, color, door, writer Exercice

  7. At times in semantics, we do not associate certain creatures as prototypical birds. For instance, when we think of a bird, we tend to think of the usual bird like a ‘robin’, but we usually don’t regard the following as birds, like an ostrich or penguin (technically they are birds). Prototypes

  8. Two are more words with the same form and related meaning: Head (body, school, etc) Foot (person, mountain, table) Run (person, river, …ect) Polysemy

  9. Let’s remember these first…. Homophone: same sound, different written form. Example: right/write, to/too/two Homograph: same written form, same or different sound, different meaning. Bear (animal)/bear (vb. To carry), conduct (with accent on first syllable) means behavior, accent on second syllable, verb ‘to maneuver’, others include: can you think about the possible meanings? do, desert, dove, use Homonyms: same sound, same orthography, but different meaning Bank (of a river)-bank (institution) bat (flying creature)-bat (cricket) Race (car race)-race (ethnic group) homonymy

  10. summary