Download
lwip tcp ip stack n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
LWIP TCP/IP Stack PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
LWIP TCP/IP Stack

LWIP TCP/IP Stack

457 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

LWIP TCP/IP Stack

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. LWIP TCP/IP Stack 김백규

  2. What is LWIP? • An implementation of the TCP/IP protocol stack. • The focus of the lwIP stack is to reduce memory usage and code size • suitable for use in small clients with very limited resources such as embedded systems. • uses a tailor made API that does not require any data copying.

  3. Features of TCP/IP stack(Traditional version) • Designing in a layered fashion leads to… • communication overhead between layers • Network communication is similar to IPC or file I/O • APP can’t aware of the buffer mechanisms. • (e.g. reuse buffers with frequently used data.) <Layered model>

  4. Features of TCP/IP stack(LWIP version) • Do not maintain a strict layer. • This allows using a more relaxed scheme for communication between layers. (By means of shared memory) • APP layer can use the buffer handling mechanisms used by the lower layers. • APP can more efficiently reuse buffers. • Application process can use the same memory as the networking code • App can read and write directly to the internal buffers. • Saving the expense of performing a copy

  5. Process model of LWIP • All protocols reside in a single process thus are separated from the OS kernel. • Allow to be portable across different OS. • APP may either reside in the LWIP process or be in separate processes. • Communicate are done by function calls. • Or a more abstract API.

  6. The operating system emulation layers • OS specific function calls and data structures are not used directly in the code. • The operating system emulation layer is used. • The OS emulation layer provides • Timers, process synchronization, message passing mechanisms, and so on. • Porting to a different OS • Only need the operating system emulation layer.

  7. Buffer and memory management • Packet buffers –pbufs • A pbuf is LWIP’s internal representation of a packet, • And is designed for the special needs of the minimal stack. • Types of pbufs • PBUF_RAM, PBUF_ROM, PBUF_POOL • A pbuf chain may consist of multiple types of pbufs.

  8. PBUF_RAM pbuf • has the packet data stored in memory managed by the pbuf subsystem. • used when an application sends data that is dynamically generated.

  9. PBUF_ROM pbuf • Used when an application sends data that is located in memory managed by the application. • The main use is when the data is located in ROM • Header that are prepended to the data in a PBUF_ROM pbuf are stored in a PBUF_RAM pbuf.

  10. PBUF_POOL • Consist of fixed size pbufs allocated from a pool of fixed size pbufs. • Mainly used by network device drivers since the operation of allocating a single pbuf is fast and is therefore suitable for use in an interrupt handler

  11. Network interfaces The network interfaces are kept on a global linked list. Reflect the kind of H/W Ex) Bluetooth => bt WLAN => wl The function the device driver should call when a packet has been received. The function in the device driver that transmits a packet on the physical network and it is called by the IP layer when a packet is to be sent. Points to device driver specific state for the network interface and is set by the device driver.

  12. IP processing(1/3) • Receiving packets • Network device driver calls ip_input() function. • Checking IP version, header length • Computing the header checksum • Checking destination address. • Sending packets • Handled by the function ip_output() • Find the appropriate network interface. • All IP header fields are filled. • IP header checksum is computed. • The source and destination address are passed.

  13. IP processing(2/3) • Forwarding packets • The packet should be forwarded… • When none of the network interfaces has the same IP address as an incoming packet’s destination address. • This is done by the function ip_forward() • ttl field is decreased. • If ttl reaches zero, an ICMP error message is sent.

  14. IP processing(3/3) • ICMP processing This is for ICMP ECHO message. Just swapping the IP destination and source address of the incoming packet.

  15. UDP processing(1/2) • The udp_pcb structure The UDP PCBs are kept on a linked list which is searched for a match when a UDP datagram arrives. Called when a datagram is received.

  16. UDP processing(2/2) • UDP processing

  17. TCP processing(1/2) Function to call when a listener has been connected. Next sequence number Receiver’s window Timer for TIME-WAIT state Used when passing received data to the application layer.

  18. TCP processing(2/2)

  19. Application Program Interface • The BSD socket API • Require data that is to be sent to be copied from application program to internal buffers in the TCP/IP stack. • Since the two layers reside in different protection domains. • The LWIP socket API • Utilizes knowledge of the internal structure of LWIP to achieve effectiveness. • Does not require that data is copied. • Since the application program can manipulate the internal buffers directly.

  20. Data types • netconn - Knowledge of the internal structure of the struct should not be used in application programs. - Instead, the API provides functions for modifying and extracting necessary fields.

  21. Network connection function(1/2) • netconn new() • struct netconn * netconn new(enum netconn type type) • netconn delete() • void netconn delete(struct netconn *conn) • netconn bind() • int netconn bind(struct netconn *conn, struct ip addr *addr, unsigned short port) • netconn connect() • int netconn connect(struct netconn *conn, struct ip addr *remote addr, unsigned short remote port)

  22. Network connection function(2/2) • netconn listen() • int netconn listen(struct netconn *conn) • netconn accept() • struct netconn * netconn accept(struct netconn *conn) • netconn recv() • struct netbuf * netconn recv(struct netconn *conn) • netconn write() • int netconn write(struct netconn *conn, void *data, int len, unsigned int flags)

  23. Example #1 <This example shows how to open a TCP server on port 2000> • Int main() • { • struct netconn *conn, *newconn; • /* create a connection structure */ • conn = netconn_new(NETCONN_TCP); • /* bind the connection to port 2000 on any local • IP address */ • netconn_bind(conn, NULL, 2000); • /* tell the connection to listen for incoming • connection requests */ • netconn_listen(conn); • /* block until we get an incoming connection */ • newconn = netconn_accept(conn); • /* do something with the connection */ • process_connection(newconn); • /* deallocate both connections */ • netconn_delete(newconn); • netconn_delete(conn); • }

  24. Example #2 <This is a small example that shows a suggested use of the netconn_recv() function.> • Void example_function(struct netconn *conn) • { • struct netbuf *buf; • /* receive data until the other host closes • the connection */ • while((buf = netconn_recv(conn)) != NULL) { • do_something(buf); • } • /* the connection has now been closed by the • other end, so we close our end */ • netconn_close(conn); • }

  25. Example #3 <This example shows the basic usage of netconn_write().> • Int main() • { • struct netconn *conn; • char data[10]; • char text[] = "Static text"; • int i; • /* set up the connection conn */ • /* [...] */ • /* create some arbitrary data */ • for(i = 0; i < 10; i++) • data[i] = i; • netconn_write(conn, data, 10, NETCONN_COPY); • netconn_write(conn, text, sizeof(text), NETCONN_NOCOPY); • 28 • 16 NETWORK CONNECTION FUNCTIONS • /* the data can be modified */ • for(i = 0; i < 10; i++) • data[i] = 10 - i; • /* take down the connection conn */ • netconn_close(conn); • }