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Role Based Access Control. Venkata Marella. Access Control System. Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of a particular resource by a particular entity. Access control mechanisms can be used in managing physical resources, logical resources, or digital resources.

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access control system
Access Control System
  • Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of a particular resource by a particular entity. Access control mechanisms can be used in managing physical resources, logical resources, or digital resources.
different access control systems
Different Access Control Systems
  • Discretionary Access Control: Restricts access to objects based solely on the identity of users who are trying to access them.
  • Mandatory Access Control: Assign a security clearance to each user, and ensure that all users only have access to that data for which they have a clearance.
  • Role-Based Access Control
what is rbac
What is RBAC?
  • Role-Based Access Control Model is a nondiscretionary access control mechanism which allows & prompts the central administration of an organization specific security policy
  • Permission to perform an operation on an object is assigned to roles, not to users
  • Users are assigned to roles
  • Users acquire their permissions based on the roles they are assigned
slide5

The process of defining roles should be based on a thorough analysis of how an organization operates and should include input from a wide spectrum of users in an organization.

  • Permissions are defined based on job authority and responsibilities within a job function.
  • Operations on an object are invocated based on the permissions.
  • The object is concerned with the user’s role and not the user.
slide6
RBAC

(UA)User Assignment

OPERA

TIONS

OBJECTS

ROLES

USERS

privileges

user_sessions

session_roles

Sess-

ions

core components
Core Components
  • Defines:
    • USERS
    • ROLES
    • OPERATIONS (ops)
    • OBJECTS (obs)
    • User Assignments (ua)
    • Permissions (prms)
    • Sessions
slide8

Role-Based Access Control

  • RBAC supports three well-known security principles:
      • Least Privilege
      • Separation of duties
      • Data Abstraction
  • Least Privilege says that only minimum necessary rights should be assigned to a subject that requests access to a resource.
  • Separation of duties is achieved by ensuring that mutually exclusive roles must be invoked to complete a sensitive task.
  • Data abstraction is supported by means of abstract permissions such as credit and debit for an account.
  • The degree to which data abstraction is supported will be determined by the implementation details
challenges in rbac
Challenges in RBAC
  • Policy must be clearly defined or RBAC breaks down completely
  • Roles must be created that reflect business needs
  • Permissions for roles to access objects must be determined
  • Membership is each role must be determined
advantage of rbac
Advantage of RBAC
  • Once implemented RBAC simplifies system administration
  • Strong support for separation of duties
  • Good auditing support
  • Considered best practice by many
rbac simplifies system administration
RBAC Simplifies System Administration
  • When a user changes positions
    • Her roles are changed to reflect her new position
    • Her replacement is assigned her old roles
    • No need to remove user’s old access on each object
  • If roles are well defined, the system administrator only needs to add a user to their assigned roles and the user has access to all the resources they require to complete their job
separation of duties
Separation of Duties
  • Manages conflict of interest policy
  • Reduces chances of fraud
  • Spreads critical duties across roles and in turn users
  • RBAC has built-in support for:
    • Static Separation of duties (SSD)
    • Dynamic Separation of duties (DSD)
rbac improves auditing
RBAC Improves Auditing
  • User, role, and permission reviews are built into RBAC
  • Much easier to determine if an object should be accessed from a role instead of a person
    • Should Jane access the payroll object? ???
disadvantages
Disadvantages
  • This is good model for a static, closed, centralized organization where you can form a Role Hierarchy. But, this model is not efficient for distributed or dynamic system.
references
References
  • Ravi S. Sandhu“Role-Based Access Control “
  • Gail - JoonAhn and Ravi Sandhu “Role-Based Authorization Constraints Specification”
  • Sandhu R. et. al. “Role-based Access Control Models”. IEEE Computer, 29(2):38-47 February 1996