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Chapter 4 (Part 1) Network Security. Chapter 4 – Protection in General-Purpose Operating Systems Section 4.1 Protected Objects and Methods of Protection Section 4.2 Memory and Address Protection 4.3 Control of Access to General Objects 4.4 File Protection Mechanisms. In this Section .

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chapter 4 part 1 network security

Chapter 4 (Part 1)Network Security

Chapter 4 – Protection in General-Purpose Operating Systems

Section 4.1 Protected Objects and Methods of Protection

Section 4.2 Memory and Address Protection

4.3 Control of Access to General Objects

4.4 File Protection Mechanisms

in this section
In this Section
  • Memory Protection
    • Fence
    • Base/Bound
    • Segmentation
    • Page
    • Segmentation/Page
  • Object Control
    • Directory
    • Access Control List
    • Access Control Matrix
    • Kerberos
  • File Protection Mechanisms
protection in general purpose os
Protection in General-Purpose OS
  • Some program are insecure just based upon the nature of the program
  • Problem Children: Operating Systems and Databases (require access by many different “privileged” users)
  • OS General Goal: Controlling Shared Access and Interface.
  • OS Function (each have much security concern)
    • Access Control
    • Identification and Credentials
    • Information flow
  • Need to separate levels of security for particular users
projected objects and methods of protection
Projected Objects and Methods of Protection
  • In the beginning there was no OS…. Programs were just inputted – cards/switches and the human hand were the OS
  • Early OS was just a utility called an executive and only handled a single user - system resources managed by user
  • Multiprogrammed OS allowed for more than one user – system resources managed by the monitor
  • Early day protection was easy – you protected the user from themselves but today you must protect all users of an OS from each other and Malory
protected objects
Protected Objects
  • In a multiprogram environment many objects need protection:
    • Memory
    • Sharable I/O devices
    • Serially/Parallel reusable I/O devices
    • Sharable programs and subprocedures
    • Networks
    • Sharable Data
  • Notice the single correlation of all these “Shared”
security methods of operating systems
Security Methods of Operating Systems
  • Basis of protections is separation (keeping user objects away from other users)
  • Methods of Separation:
    • Physical – nothing shared
    • Temporal – operating things a different times
    • Logical – running together but can’t access each other
    • Cryptographic - running together but concealed
levels of share protection
Levels of Share Protection
  • Do not Prevent – no protection when procedure are being run at different times
  • Isolate – running concurrently but aware of each other; separate space, objects and files
  • Share all or share nothing – owner of objects declare it public or private (all or none)
  • Share via access limitation – each user is checked for access availability of an object
  • Share by compatibilities- dynamic creation of shared objects
  • Limit use of an object- user has varying access to an object

Each has a varying level of granularity - Greater granularity creates greater access control

fence fence register memory and address protection
Fence/Fence Register – Memory and Address Protection
  • Simplest of all protection
  • Confine the user to one side of a boundary
  • Used to separate OS and Program (wasteful use of space)
  • Protects a user from an OS but not a user from another user
base bound register
Base/Bound Register
  • Created for a multiuser environment
  • Base Register – variable fence register (lower bound)
  • Bound Register – the upper address limit
tagged architecture
Tagged Architecture
  • In base/bound, it is an all or nothing on the sharing of data. It is hard to manage because of it contiguous data space.
  • Tagged Architecture- every word of machine memory has one extra bits to identify access right
  • Segmentation – notion of dividing a program into separate pieces – each has a logical unity
    • Code for a procedure, sub procedure, array
    • Unlimited number of base/bound registers <name, offset>
  • Segment Address Table is created for each program used to determine the true memory address of an instruction or data
  • Program divided into equal size chunks called pages and inserted into page frames; <page, offset>
  • Unlike segmentation all pages are the same size removing most fragmentation
  • slight sifting of data can cause security problems
paging segmentation
  • Combing the benefits of Paging and Segmentation
control of access to general object
Control of Access to General Object
  • Objects to Protect
    • Memory
    • File or data on storage device
    • Executing program in memory
    • Directory of files
    • Hardware device
    • Data structure
    • Tables of the OS
    • Instructions, privileged instructions
    • Passwords - Authentication
    • The protection mechanism
goals to protecting objects
Goals to Protecting Objects
  • Check every access – able to revoke a right to an object
  • Enforce least privilege – user/object should have access to the smallest number of objects necessary to perform some task
  • Verify acceptable usage – Not just access an object but check to see if its use of the object is acceptable
directory access
Directory Access
  • Each user has a list to determine access to an object
  • Problem – large lists, revocation of access, and multiple entries of the same name
access control list
Access Control List
  • A single list for each object
  • Lots of advantages over Directory Access
access control matrix
Access Control Matrix
  • Each row represents a subject and each column represents a object. Each entry is the set of access rights
  • Table 4-1 in textbook
  • Capability is an unforgettable token that gives rights to an object
  • Sometimes a user must have a ticket; Domain useage
  • Kerberos is an implementation of a ticket based system with authentication
  • Authentication Server (AS) – authenticates the user
  • Ticket Granting Server (TGS) – provides the ticket
  • Key Distribution Center (KDC) – is made up of the AS and TGS
file protection mechanisms
File Protection Mechanisms
  • All-None System (Unacceptable)
    • Lack of Trust
    • Too Course
    • Rise of Sharing
    • Complexity
    • File Listings
  • Group Protection (has problems)
    • Group Affiliation
    • Multiple Personalities
    • All Groups
    • Limited Sharing