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ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. ESCUELA :. INGLÉS. NOMBRES. Dra. Carmen Benítez. ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009. FECHA :. CHAPTER 9 STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLES. Strong: stressed peak: long vowel, diphthongs, triphthongs short vowel + coda (1 or more C). Weak: unstressed, lower intensity, dif. quality

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slide1

ENGLISH PHONOLOGY

ESCUELA:

INGLÉS

NOMBRES

Dra. Carmen Benítez

ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009

FECHA:

chapter 9 strong and weak syllables
CHAPTER 9 STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLES

Strong: stressed

peak:

long vowel, diphthongs, triphthongs

short vowel + coda (1 or more C)

slide3

Weak:

unstressed, lower intensity, dif. quality

peak:

end of words: ə, i, u, ə + coda, SC (l, m, n, ŋ, r)

inside words: ə, i, u, ɪnext syllable begins with consonant

schwa vowel
“Schwa” Vowel ə
  • The most occurring vowel in English
  • Weak: occurs with weak syllables

Quality:

mid half way between close open

central half way betw front back

lax art. without much energy

slide6

weak form strong form

  • a ə æ
  • ar əɑ:
  • o ə ɒ - əʊ
  • or ə ɔ:
  • e ə e
  • er ə ɜ:
  • u ə ʌ
  • ough ə many
  • ou ə aʊ
  • ate adj. end ə eɪ
close front close back vowels
Close front – Close back Vowels

Area of producing: near i:

i

i: u: ɪ

ɪ ʊ

near u:

u

ʊ

slide8
Distribution:

i

  • Word f p: “y”, “ey” after 1 or more C.
  • Morpheme f p: “y”, “ey” + suff beg with V
  • Prefixes: re, pre, de, before unst vowel.
  • Suffix: iate, ious 2 syllable words
  • he, she we, me, be (unstressed)
  • the preceding a vowel

u

  • you, to, into do
  • before another vowel within a word
syllabic consonants
Syllabic consonants

l, m, n, ŋ, r syllabic consonants

Why?

Stand as peak in weak syllables;

novel, pencil, action

How do you mark it?

By placing a (ˌ) under l, m, n, ŋ, r

novel nɒvl, pencil pensl,

action ækʃn

slide10

Syllabic l

Distribuition:

After another consonant (alveolar)

  • w f p with 1 or more C + “le”
    • With alveolar C prec. little
    • With non-alveolar C. prec. Staple
  • w f p, words spelt with 1 or more C + “al” “el”`partial, panel
slide11
Syllabic n

Distribuition:

Doesn’t occur in IP except in some words.

In M or F P: n becomes syllabic after plosive or fricative + ən

cotton often open

slide12

Syllabic m, ŋ

  • Result from a process of assimilation or elision.
  • Not so common
  • Can be transcribed as ən too
  • (ˌ) below l, m, n, ŋ, r shows that the C is syllabic, in the case of ŋ (ˌ) can be placed above the symbol.
chapter 10 stress in simple words
CHAPTER 10 STRESS IN SIMPLE WORDS

Strength used to pronounce a syllable in a word

Marked wit (ˈ)

2 ways of seen it:

slide14

Production:use of energy to produce sound (muscles) subglottal pressure higher

Perception: stressed syllables are prominent

PROMINENCE characteristic of stressed syllables (factors)

length, loudness, pitch and quality

slide15

Levels of stress

Stress is marked with (') high up before the stressed syllable

(') primary stress (strong)

(ˌ) secondary stress (weak)

( ) unstressed (no prominence)

(∘) tertiary stress (very weak)

slide16

Placement of stress within the word

1-syllable words

Basically we take into account:

  • Kind of word:simple or complex

isolated 1 syllable word strong

  • The gram. category of the word
  • Number of syllables
  • Phon structure of the syllable.
slide17

onlyusedwithstrongsyllables

  • Two-syllablewords

Verbs: 2nd s, stress 2nd; 2 w, stress 1st; 2nd əʊ, 1st

Nouns: 2nd s short v, stress 1st

Adjectives: same rules as verbs

Adverbs and prepositions (verbs)

slide18

Three- syllable words

verbs: f strong, s f

f w, s preceding if s

f w, preceding w, s 1st

Nouns: f əʊ, prec s, s 2nd

2nd and f w, s 1st

f s, 2nd weak, s 1st

Adjectives: same rule as nouns

chapter 11 complex word stress
CHAPTER 11COMPLEX WORD STRESS

COMPLEX WORDS

Affixes can:

  • Receiveprimary stress
  • Do notreceiveit
  • Influenceontheshift of stress
slide20

Suffixes: at the end of the word.

region + al = regional

stem + suffix

Productive suffixes: the most common and used.

Some problems:

  • Some words seem to have a suffix. regional canal
  • number of suffixes a word can have interestingly
slide21

Suffixes carrying the stress themselves

ee, er, ese, ette, esque

portuguese pɔ:tʃə'gi:z

  • Suffixes that do not affect st. plac

able, age, al, en, ful, ing, ish, like, less, ly, ment, ness, ous, fy, wise,y

national'næʃnl

  • Suffixes that influence stress in the stem

eous, graphy, ial, ic, ion, ious, ty, ive proverb proverbial prəˈvɜ:biəl

slide22

Prefixes before the stem

  • Do not work the same as suffixes
  • Do not carry primary stress
compound words
Compound words

Words formed by two ind. words

hand-bag typewriter

  • Most carry stress in the 2nd word
slide24

Exceptions:

Adj. first element and ed at the end

bad-'tempered

First element is a number

three-wheeler

Comp. functioning as adverbs

North-east

Comp. functioning as verbs hand have an adv. As first element

down-grade

variable stress
Variable stress
  • Stress is shifted to another position because:
  • The influence of other words

bad ˈtempered bad tempered ˈteacher

  • Speakers do not agree on stress placement.

controversy 'kɒntəvɜsi kɒn'təvɜsi

word class pairs
Word class pairs

Identical words with different grammatical function.

adj, noun, verb

Consist of a preffix + stem

Are different because of stress

'æbstrækt (adj) æb'strækt (v)

'ekspɔ:t (n ) eks'pɔ:t (v)

chapter 12 weak forms
CHAPTER 12WEAK FORMS

Strong and weak forms: same words pronounced in strong and weak form in certain contexts.

that ðæt ðət

function words:

auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, etc.

slide28

Weak forms are pronounced as strong in the following cases:

  • of at the end of a sentence
  • For contrasting information:

Give it to him not to her

  • Coordinate use of prepositions

The letter said from New York not toNew York

  • For emphasis

You have to do that

slide29

There are many forms pronounced only weak in ceratin contexts.

the, a an, and, that, his, her, your, she, he, we, you, him, at, him, her, them, us, for, from, of, to, as, some, there, can, have, has, had, shall, should, must, do, does, am, are, was

Recomedation: practice a lot.

chapter 14 aspects of connected speech
CHAPTER 14ASPECTS OF CONNECTED SPEECH

Ourspeechisaccompanied of someaspects. Theseaspects are:

  • Rhythm
  • Assimilation
  • Elision
  • Linking
rhythm
Rhythm

Involves noticeable event happening at regular intervals of time.

English is stress-timed rhythm.- The times from one stressed syllable to the next will tend to be the same irrespectibly of the number of intervening unstressed syllables.

syllable-timed rhythm: syllables (s or un)tend to occur at regular time-intervals, times shorter or longer depending on the number of ustressed syllables

slide32

Unit of rhythm: foot

Rhythm can vary

minimal value arhythmically

maximum value very rhytmically

assimilation
Assimilation

Processbywhich a phonemeisrealized in differentlybecause of theinfluence of a neighbouringsound.

F C becomeslike I C regressive

thatpersonðætpɜ:snðæppɜ:sn

I C becomeslike F C progressive

Assimilation of voice

slide34

Differences in place of artic.

Alveolar sounds become bilabial or dental plosives (regressive)

  • Differences in manner of artic.

Final plosive becomes fricative or nasal (regressive)

  • Differences in voicing devoicing of voiced consonats (regressive)
elision
Elision

Sounds dissapear under certain circumstances, a phoneme may be realized zero or not realized.

actsæks scriptsskrɪps

looked back lʊk bæk

intonation
INTONATION

Closely related to pitch, helps to convey messages or show different states.

Pitch is produced by the vibration of the vocal cords.

levels of pitch
Levels of pitch
  • Level _
  • Falling `
  • Rising ´