ENGLISH PHONOLOGY. ESCUELA :. INGLÉS. NOMBRES. Dra. Carmen Benítez. ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009. FECHA :. CHAPTER 9 STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLES. Strong: stressed peak: long vowel, diphthongs, triphthongs short vowel + coda (1 or more C). Weak: unstressed, lower intensity, dif. quality
Dra. Carmen Benítez
ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009
long vowel, diphthongs, triphthongs
short vowel + coda (1 or more C)
unstressed, lower intensity, dif. quality
end of words: ə, i, u, ə + coda, SC (l, m, n, ŋ, r)
inside words: ə, i, u, ɪnext syllable begins with consonant
mid half way between close open
central half way betw front back
lax art. without much energy
Area of producing: near i:
i: u: ɪ
l, m, n, ŋ, r syllabic consonants
Stand as peak in weak syllables;
novel, pencil, action
How do you mark it?
By placing a (ˌ) under l, m, n, ŋ, r
novel nɒvl, pencil pensl,
After another consonant (alveolar)
Doesn’t occur in IP except in some words.
In M or F P: n becomes syllabic after plosive or fricative + ən
cotton often open
Strength used to pronounce a syllable in a word
Marked wit (ˈ)
2 ways of seen it:
Production:use of energy to produce sound (muscles) subglottal pressure higher
Perception: stressed syllables are prominent
PROMINENCE characteristic of stressed syllables (factors)
length, loudness, pitch and quality
Stress is marked with (') high up before the stressed syllable
(') primary stress (strong)
(ˌ) secondary stress (weak)
( ) unstressed (no prominence)
(∘) tertiary stress (very weak)
Basically we take into account:
isolated 1 syllable word strong
Verbs: 2nd s, stress 2nd; 2 w, stress 1st; 2nd əʊ, 1st
Nouns: 2nd s short v, stress 1st
Adjectives: same rules as verbs
Adverbs and prepositions (verbs)
verbs: f strong, s f
f w, s preceding if s
f w, preceding w, s 1st
Nouns: f əʊ, prec s, s 2nd
2nd and f w, s 1st
f s, 2nd weak, s 1st
Adjectives: same rule as nouns
region + al = regional
stem + suffix
Productive suffixes: the most common and used.
ee, er, ese, ette, esque
able, age, al, en, ful, ing, ish, like, less, ly, ment, ness, ous, fy, wise,y
eous, graphy, ial, ic, ion, ious, ty, ive proverb proverbial prəˈvɜ:biəl
Words formed by two ind. words
Adj. first element and ed at the end
First element is a number
Comp. functioning as adverbs
Comp. functioning as verbs hand have an adv. As first element
bad ˈtempered bad tempered ˈteacher
controversy 'kɒntəvɜsi kɒn'təvɜsi
Identical words with different grammatical function.
adj, noun, verb
Consist of a preffix + stem
Are different because of stress
'æbstrækt (adj) æb'strækt (v)
'ekspɔ:t (n ) eks'pɔ:t (v)
Strong and weak forms: same words pronounced in strong and weak form in certain contexts.
that ðæt ðət
auxiliaries, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, etc.
Give it to him not to her
The letter said from New York not toNew York
You have to do that
the, a an, and, that, his, her, your, she, he, we, you, him, at, him, her, them, us, for, from, of, to, as, some, there, can, have, has, had, shall, should, must, do, does, am, are, was
Recomedation: practice a lot.
Ourspeechisaccompanied of someaspects. Theseaspects are:
Involves noticeable event happening at regular intervals of time.
English is stress-timed rhythm.- The times from one stressed syllable to the next will tend to be the same irrespectibly of the number of intervening unstressed syllables.
syllable-timed rhythm: syllables (s or un)tend to occur at regular time-intervals, times shorter or longer depending on the number of ustressed syllables
Rhythm can vary
minimal value arhythmically
maximum value very rhytmically
Processbywhich a phonemeisrealized in differentlybecause of theinfluence of a neighbouringsound.
F C becomeslike I C regressive
I C becomeslike F C progressive
Assimilation of voice
Alveolar sounds become bilabial or dental plosives (regressive)
Final plosive becomes fricative or nasal (regressive)
Sounds dissapear under certain circumstances, a phoneme may be realized zero or not realized.
looked back lʊk bæk
Closely related to pitch, helps to convey messages or show different states.
Pitch is produced by the vibration of the vocal cords.