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Chapter 4: Solubility. Experiment 4.1: Dissolving a Solid in Water Experiment 4.3: Comparing the Concentrations of Saturated Solutions Experiment 4.4: The Effect of Temperature on Solubility Experiment 4.6: Isopropanol as a Solvent Experiment 4.8: Two Gases

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chapter 4 solubility
Chapter 4: Solubility
  • Experiment 4.1: Dissolving a Solid in Water
  • Experiment 4.3: Comparing the Concentrations of Saturated Solutions
  • Experiment 4.4: The Effect of Temperature on Solubility
  • Experiment 4.6: Isopropanol as a Solvent
  • Experiment 4.8: Two Gases
  • Experiment 4.11: The Solubility of Carbon Dioxide
solubility overview
Solubility Overview
  • The ability of one substance to DISSOLVE into another is defined as its SOLUBILITY. The most common experience we find is that of a solid dissolving into a liquid. For example, when mixing a spoonful of sugar into water, we see the sugar completely disappear from view. Although we cannot see the sugar, it is still within the water. If we were to taste the water, it would taste sweet. If we were to mass the sugar and water both before and after the mixing, the masses would be the same. The sugar and the water together have made a SOLUTION.
solubility overview3
Solubility Overview
  • However, SOLUBILITY can also be a liquid dissolving into another liquid (alcohol dissolves into water), or a gas dissolving into a liquid (carbon dioxide dissolves in water). When one substance can be broken down and spread out within another substance, it has been dissolved.
solubility overview4
Solubility Overview
  • The substance being broken down is defined as the “SOLUTE.”
  • The substance that acts on the solute, but does not itself change, is called the “SOLVENT.”
solubility overview5
Solubility Overview
  • What are the definitions of the following:
    • DISSOLVING
    • SOLUBILITY
    • SOLUTION
    • SOLUTE
    • SOLVENT
solubility overview6
Solubility Overview
  • The SOLUBILITY of a substance depends on the mass of solute, the volume of solvent, and the temperature of the solution. It is expressed in a complex unit—grams of solute per 100 ml of solvent at a given temperature. The ability of a substance to dissolve is typically shown in a graph called the “SOLUBILITY CURVE.”
from the solubility curve we can determine the following
From the solubility curve, we can determine the following:

How much solute will dissolve in 100 ml of solvent at a given temperature.

  • What volume of solvent will be needed to dissolve X grams of solute at a given temperature.
  • What temperature is needed to dissolve X grams of solute into 100 ml of solvent.
  • How much solute will dissolve in any volume of solvent, not just a volume of 100 ml.
experiment 4 1 dissolving a solid in water
Experiment 4.1: Dissolving a Solid in Water
  • In this lab, students will determine the concentration of various solutions of salt and water.
  • Students will derive the saturation concentration of salt in water at room temperature.