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6% F 19% D 34% C 24% B 17% A. Basic Concepts/Questions Developmental Theories Policy Implications . Developmental Criminology. The Age-Crime Relationship. Arrest Rate. 4000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0. Property Crimes, peak age = 16. Violent Crimes, peak age = 18.

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slide1

6% F

19% D

34% C

24% B

17% A

basic concepts questions developmental theories policy implications
Basic Concepts/Questions

Developmental Theories

Policy Implications

Developmental Criminology

slide3

The Age-Crime Relationship

Arrest Rate

4000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

Property Crimes, peak age = 16

Violent Crimes, peak age = 18

10 20 30 40 50

Age at Arrest

is the age crime curve misleading
Is the Age/Crime Curve Misleading?
  • Data is AGGREGATE
    • It could hide subgroups of offenders, or “offending trajectories”
  • Data is Cross-Sectional
    • Doesn’t track stability/change over time
  • Data is OFFICIAL
    • Cannot tell us about the precursors to official delinquency (childhood antisocial behavior)
antisocial behavior is stable
Antisocial Behavior Is Stable
  • COHORT STUDIES = CHRONIC 6%
  • Correlation between past and future criminal behavior ranges from .6 to .7 (very strong)
  • Lee Robins- Studies of cohorts of males
    • Antisocial Personality as an adult virtually requires history of CASB
  • CASB as early as age 6 related to delinquency
  • More severe behavior has more stability
    • “Early onset delinquency” powerful indicator of stability
but there is change
But there is CHANGE
  • 1/2 of antisocial children are never arrested
  • The vast majority of delinquents desist as they enter adulthood (mid 20s)
new and old ideas
New and Old Ideas
  • OLD: Crime is the province of adolescents; theories of delinquency most important
      • Easier to find/survey adolescents too!
  • New (Considering stability/development )
    • Central causes of delinquency lie in childhood
      • Theories of adolescent delinquency are at best incomplete
    • Lifecourse Questions
      • Why do some age out of crime while others don’t?
      • Why is criminality so stable over time?
      • What causes crime at different stages of life?
terminology
Terminology
  • “Career Criminal” Paradigm
    • Early roots in criminology—studies of robbers, fences, and so forth
    • Crime as an occupation  specialization, escalation, etc.
  • Empirical evidence = little specialization, crime not as an “occupation”
    • Developmental Criminology replaces “Career Criminal” paradigm in 1980s
lifecourse theory i
Lifecourse Theory I
  • Must explain why there is stability (continuity) in antisocial behavior
  • Must explain childhood precursors to offending (childhood antisocial behavior)
    • Severe (age inappropriate) temper tantrums
    • Deviant/criminal behavior
  • Must explain desistence, or “change”
    • Antisocial children, but not adults
    • Adults that “age out”
lifecourse theory ii
Lifecourse Theory II

Types of Lifecourse Theories

  • Continuity Theories (Trait—G&H)
  • Continuity and Change Theories (Sampson and Laub)
  • Continuity or Change Theories (Moffitt)
continuity theories
Continuity Theories
  • Some “thing” that is stable over time and related to crime
    • Gottfreson and Hirschi  Low self-control
      • Becomes very stable by age 8
      • Causes crime and other nastiness
    • Problem?
      • Why do people desist? Explain “childhood recoveries” or adult desistence?
    • G&H
      • People desist –it’s a “law” or “constant” like gravity, which doesn’t’ need explanation
sampson and laub
Sampson and Laub
  • Important/Popular book: Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life
    • First to fully outline “lifecourse” criminology
    • Put forth a lifecourse theory
    • Use “Glueck data” to test theory
pathways and turning points
Pathways and Turning Points
  • Pathways = stability
  • Turning Points = opportunity for change
sampson and laub14
Sampson and Laub

Childhood Adolescence Adulthood

  • Context
  • Poverty
  • Neighborhood
  • Others
  • Parenting
  • Supervision
  • Discipline
  • Social Bonds
  • Family
  • School
  • Delinquent Peers

Delinquency

Adult Crime

Length of

Incarceration

  • Social Bonds
  • Marriage
  • Good Job
  • Individual
  • Differences
  • Temperament
  • Conduct disorder
  • diagnosis
continuity
Continuity
  • Stability of Trajectory
    • Individual differences (traits) possible
    • Cumulative Continuity
      • Delinquency/crime has effect on “adult social bonds”
      • Delinquency/crime can lead to incarceration, which also has effect on adult social bonds
      • These bonds, in turn, have effect on future crime
just a little picture
Just a little picture…

Because I care…

change
Change
  • Turning Points = Adult Social Bonds
    • Quality Marriage
    • Quality Employment
  • Why would these things reduce crime?
    • S&L: they increase informal control (bind individuals to society, give them something to lose)
    • Other explanations (spend less time with criminal friends, etc.)
sampson and laub ii
Sampson and Laub II
  • New Book/Articles based on follow-up data from Gleuck sample
    • Followed until age 70
  • Similar to original theory
    • Employment, marriage, military service
  • More complex-why a “turning point?”
    • Knife off past from the present/future
    • Supervision/monitoring (control) but also opportunities for social support/growth
    • Change to structure/routine activities
    • Opportunity for identity transformation
how do people desist
How do people desist?
  • Desistence by Default
    • No conscious decision to “stop offending”
      • Rather, roles, structure, social context changes
  • Human Agency
    • Vague concept that implies people have some say in the matter.
      • Not same as “rational choice” nor is it a “trait”
        • Interaction = land a good job but still must want to keep
    • Theoretical Importance
      • Lives do not “unfold” in predictable sequences
      • Desistence more difficult to explain than onset or persistence
terrie moffitt
Terrie Moffitt
  • A Stability or Change Theory
  • Argument:
    • There are 2 different “kinds” of offenders in the world
    • These types can be characterized by their unique “offending trajectories”
  • Failure of Mainstream Criminology?
    • During adolescence, these two groups look rather similar
moffitt s 2 groups of offenders
Moffitt’s 2 Groups of Offenders
  • LCP’s
    • Early Start, Stable over lifecourse, 5% of general population (small group)
    • Therefore…
      • Why start so early? Why so stable?
  • AL’s
    • Late starters, desist in adulthood, very prevalent in population
    • Therefore….
      • Why start so late? Why desist right away?
explaining the lcp trajectory
Explaining the LCP trajectory
  • Presence of “Neuropsychological Deficits”
    • Where do they come from?
    • Why do they matter?

INTERACTING WITH

  • Ineffective Parenting
    • Monitoring, supervision, etc.
  • This “dual hazard” puts them on bad path…however…
cumulative continuity for lcp s
Cumulative Continuity for LCP’s
  • What in the environment is affected?
    • Peer Rejection
    • School Failure
    • Parenting
  • THEREFORE
    • Cumulative continuity
    • Contemporary continuity (still have N.P. Deficit, personality traits)
explaining the al s
Explaining the AL’s
  • Maturity Gap
    • Knifing off Bonds as “rewarding”
  • Mimic
  • Why do AL’s desist?
  • However, some may exhibit continuity
    • “Snares” as another example of cumulative continuity
key moffitt questions
Key Moffitt Questions
  • Why do we need 2 theories?
  • How does she account for stability and change?
  • Specific explanations of LCP and AL offending
policy implications
Policy Implications
  • The seduction of the chronic 6%
  • The promise of early intervention
  • Theory Specific Implications
    • Moffitt  causes of neurological deficits, effective parenting, other?
    • S&L  family context, parenting, bonds (child and adult)