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I -Ancient Greece and its Legacy. Greek city-state ( polis ) central to political, social, religious, economic & military life. Agora (marketplace) = where people would assemble to participate in “free speech” (birthplace of democracy .). Greek Society.

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Greek city-state (polis) central to political, social, religious, economic & military life.

  • Agora (marketplace) = where people would assemble to participate in “free speech” (birthplace of democracy.)
greek society
Greek Society
  • People had common identity & goals. Strong sense of loyalty (patriotism) combined rights with responsibilities.
  • Adult males = citizens with political rights.
  • Women & children = citizens with no political rights.
  • Foreign residents & slaves = non-citizens.
evolution of political power in some polis such as athens
Evolution of political power in some polis, such as Athens:
  • Oligarchysupported & ruled by aristocrats
  • Tyrants seized power by force. Supported by rich traders & poor peasants, not by aristocrats.
  • Democratic governmentfor, of and by all adult male citizens.
check for understanding
Check for understanding
  • Who had all the rights in Ancient Greek Society?
sparta was a military state
*Sparta was a “military state.”
  • Males were trained under spartan conditions. Age 7 boys sent to military school, fed “black broth.” Age 20 mandatory military service. Age 30 had right to vote & live at home with wife, but remained in army. Age 60 retired from military.
  • Infants with physical disabilities killed (infanticide.)
  • Females had similar physical training but stayed home to prepare to be strong mothers who would tell their sons “come home from battle either carrying your shield… or on it!”
spartan oligarchy
Spartan oligarchy
  • had two kings & a council of elders (28 citizens age 60+)
  • Closed society = xenophobic(feared & hated foreigners & their customs.)
  • had a powerful navy & was center of the golden age of Greek culture.
reform of government
Reform of Government
  • Economic crisis led to reform-minded aristocrats (i.e. leaders who were willing to make changes.)
  • Solon canceled land debts & freed farmers from slavery. Many still did not own land & couldn’t vote.
  • Cleisthenes reformed assembly to a Council of 500, elected by ALL male citizens.
golden age athens 461 429 b c
Golden Age Athens= 461-429 B.C.
  • (Pericles was leader.) Many citizens served in public office, art & architecture prospered, education important
  • (academics & philosophy “school of Greece.”)
check for understanding1
Check for understanding
  • White Board:
    • List 2 changes brought b Pericles
  • Discuss with partner how Athenian and Greek society were different
big three philosophers s p a socrates plato aristotle
“Big Three” philosophers(S.P.A. = Socrates, Plato & Aristotle)
  • 1. Socrates = worked to improve human understanding. “Socratic method” = question/answer discussion that
  • asks “Why?” Socrates known as the “gadfly,” questioned authority & was sentenced to death!
2 plato
2. Plato
  • Founded “The Academy” school of philosophy & was a student of Socrates.
  • He wrote The Republic describing an “ideal state” of 3 groups:
    • 1. Philosopher-kings 2. Warriors 3. Common men & women.
3 aristotle
3. Aristotle
  • 3. Aristotle = Student of Plato. Developed “scientific method” of observation and investigation (i.e. research.)
  • “Renaissance Man” of the ancient world. Wrote on many topics, including Politics that concluded a constitutional government was best.
legacy of greeks on western civilization
LEGACY of Greeks on Western Civilization:
  • a. Government = democracy, equal rights & responsibilities of male citizens & critical of “idiotes”
    • (self-centered, apathetic, non-contributors to society.)
  • b. Philosophy = individualism, reasoning, wisdom, ethics.
  • c. Science = rational research based on observations & investigations.
  • d. Arts = sculpture, architecture, music, poetry, literature, architecture (outdoor amphitheaters staged dramas.)
check for understanding2
Check for understanding
  • White board :
    • List one way we see Greek influence I our society
  • Discuss:
    • One thing Each guy in SPA contributed.
rulers gods
“Rulers & Gods”
  • early civilizations believed leaders appointed by God(s) or were deities themselves, who ruled with “divine assistance.”
  • Greeks consulted oracles (priestesses who spoke for the gods.)
young people in ancient greece
“Young People In Ancient Greece”
  • Spartan boys subjected to harsh discipline in military barracks (clothing = only one robe per year, slept on beds of rushes, rarely bathed, had to steal to eat & severely beaten.
  • Spartan girls received discipline & physical training to develop strong mothers, but allowed to stay home.
athenian children
Athenian Children
  • Athenian children nurtured by mothers. Boys were well-rounded individuals educated in P.E. and in academics, philosophy & music.
  • At 18 boys officially became citizens of Athens.
  • girls remained at home to learn domestic skills
    • in wealthy families were taught other subjects.
check for understanding3
Check for Understanding
  • How were Athenian Children treated Different than Spartan Children
  • (Discuss with partner)
alexander the great becomes emperor 330 bc controlled all greece
Alexander The Great becomes Emperor 330 BC controlled all Greece
  • Ended Greek Democracy
  • Did Spread Greek ideas around the World
    • Philosophy, buildings, and gov system
roman society
Roman Society
  • Patricians = large landowners, ruling class
  • Plebeians = small landholders, craftspeople & businesspeople
  • Chief officers:
    • consuls(ran govt. & led army)
    • Praetors (judges of civil law for citizens & non-citizens)
roman government
Roman Government
  • Senate = 300 landowning advisors served for life & gave critical advice to officers (had force of law.)
  • Centuriate assembly (important people’s assembly, dominated by rich) = elected chief officials
  • Council of the plebs (plebeians only) = represented rights of majority of citizens vs. patricians.
  • Tribunesbecame officials who had power to protect plebeians.

Who were the two main officers in Charge?

  • List the two organizations that worked under this Group?
  • Discuss What American Government body this looks similar too.
rome 287 b c
Rome 287 B.C.
  • all male citizens equal in theory, but wealthy patricians & plebs dominated.
  • Roman law evolved from Twelve Tables (basic agrarian laws), to laws for rural & urban citizens, to Law of Nations, including non citizens (universal law based upon reason.)
  • Standards of justice = innocent until proven guilty, right of defense against accusations, judges to be impartial.
roman empire
Roman Empire
  • – ruled over entire Mediterranean region, led by powerful emperor.
  • Caesar Augustus = victorious over rivals, created the empire, ordered a census be taken
a d 14 a d 180 pax romana order protection of law trade flourished roads expanded
A.D. 14 – A.D. 180 = PaxRomana (order & protection of law, trade flourished, roads expanded)
  • Efficient administrators over one of largest, ancient empires
  • Extended citizenship to non Romans (integrated cultures)
spreading roman culture
Spreading Roman Culture
  • City planning, architecture, engineering throughout Empire
  • Latin language = basis of FIVE Romance languages (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Romanian)
  • Romans grafted their culture onto the intellectual heritage of Greeks (Greco-Roman tradition)
    • (see chart of Greek and Roman Gods, p. 150)
  • Empire spread new religion of Christianity.
  • Jesus = Jewish teacher & preacher
    • (eg. Golden Rule “Do unto others, as you would have them do unto you”.) Love fulfills expectations of the Law & Prophets (transformation of the inner person.)
  • Jesus’ claims to be Messiah/Christ was controversial to Jewish leaders & viewed as a potential revolutionary threat to Roman powers.
    • Roman leader Pontius Pilate ordered crucifixion at request of some Hebrew authorities.

Followers of Jesus claimed his death was fulfillment of prophecy,

    • die for sins of all people & rose from the dead (resurrection.)
  • Early Christians were Jewish, but Gentiles were converted through missions of Paul (Saul)
  • Romans tolerated other religions if didn’t threaten public order.
  • Romans expected to honor Roman gods & worship emperor,
    • Christians refused = punishable by death (cruel deaths of martyrs)

What Religion did Christianity Come from?

  • What key point separates it from its original religion?
emperor nero ruled from a d 54 68 began persecution of christians blamed for great rome fire
Emperor Nero, ruled from A.D. 54-68, began persecution of Christians (blamed for great Rome fire)
  • Periods of persecution but numbers of Christians grew
  • Roman religion was impersonal for good of state
  • Christianity was a personal faith that promised eternal life. Everyone was equal before God.
  • Christian communities formed to worship God, care for others & have a sense of belonging.
constantine became the first christian emperor of rome
Constantine became the first Christian Emperor of Rome.
  • Constantine A.D. 313 “Edict of Milan” issued = legalized Christianity.
  • Theodosius the Great made Christianity the official state religion of Rome (other religions = illegal!)
476 a d roman empire collapsed
476 A.D. Roman Empire collapsed
  • Western Roman Empire: Collapsed but left its Church “Roman Catholic Church”
  • Eastern Roman Empire Continued:
    • It would be called the Byzantine Empire
2 churches
2 Churches
  • Roman Catholic Church headquarters are in Rome (the Vatican) and head is pope (Western Europe)
  • Eastern Orthodox Church headquarters in Constantinople (Istanbul) & head is patriarch (East. Europe)
islam submission to allah one true god
Islam = submission to Allah(one true God.)
  • Muhammad (the Prophet), born in Mecca (Makkah) in Arabian Peninsula.
  • Quran (Koran) teachings of Muhammad.
  • Muslims believe in teachings of Hebrew Bible, along with Jews & Christians

A.D. 622 Muhammad escaped from angry polytheists by fleeing from Mecca to Medina (Madina) = starting event of Muslim calendar (lunar calendar, crescent moon symbol)

  • Five Pillars of Islam: (belief, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage)
  • Ramadan, 9th month, holy month of fasting & prayer to commemorate Muhammad receiving words of the Quran from Allah.

What are the five pillars of Islam

  • Which can be seen in our society?
spread of islam
Spread Of Islam
  • Islam spread quickly, united Arabia, spread through South Asia & North Africa through holy wars (jihads.)
  • Arab Empire, internal divisions, conquered by the Mongols in A.D. 1258.
  • Western civilization evolved into democratic governments with freedom of religion and separation of church & state.
  • Islamic civilization traditionally has been theocratic = Islam & government closely connected (not separated as in the “West.”)
  • During Middle Ages, European crusaders sent to fight Muslims for control of “Holy Land”(Palestine)
  • Martyrs = people persecuted for their faith.
a d 800 coronation of king charlemagne by pope leo iii
A.D. 800 coronation of King Charlemagne by Pope Leo III.
  • Holy Roman Empire (pope was Roman, but Charlemagne was German) = new civilizations based upon:
  • 1. Legacy of Rome, 2. German traditions, 3. Catholic Church.

Where were the Crusaders from?

  • Who did they attack and why?
centralized control weakened after charlemagne
Centralized control weakened after Charlemagne
  • feudalism = local control by numerous lords, who gave land to knights & knights protected serfs.
england high middle ages most advanced medieval period c a d 1000 1300
England = High Middle Ages( most advanced medieval period, c. A.D. 1000-1300)
  • 1066 William of Normandy (France) defeated King Harold (England) & was crowned king in London.
  • He ruled w. combination of Anglo-Saxon (English/German) & Norman (Scandinavian/French)
power of english monarch expanded even further under henry ii
Power of English monarch expanded even further under Henry II.
  • Strengthened royal courts, which gave rise to common law that applied to all English (vs. local laws)
    • Common law- laws based on tradition
magna carta great charter 1215
Magna Carta(Great Charter) 1215
  • Lords rebelled vs. a weaker King John and forced him to sign the Magna Carta(Great Charter)
  • Limited power of the kings in writing (vs. absolute power or divine right of kings) = gave rights to lords,
  • eventually interpreted to also include common people.
  • Provided right to trial by jury
  • Principles of common law and Magna Carta were adopted by American colonies.

Under Feudalism what rights did peasants have?

  • List 2 key changes brought by the magna Carta
english parliament started during reign of edward i
English Parliamentstartedduring reign of Edward I
  • Monarch would consult parliament, especially when money was needed.
  • Upper House = House of Lords (nobles & church officials)
  • Lower House = House of Commons (knights & townspeople)
  • Parliament would vote to approve new taxes, debate politics & pass laws.
  • Both monarch & parliament shared power, but parliament became dominant through victorious battles over the king’s forces.
europe in high late middle ages
Europe in High & Late Middle Ages
  • High Middle Ages = productive farming methods, growth of cities, more trade between peoples
  • Strong leadership of popes-Gothic cathedrals, intellectual growth & formation of universities.
  • Late Middle Ages = European disasters (c. A.D. 1300 to early 1400s.)
  • Bubonic Plague (Black Death) killed 1/3 of all Europeans!
    • Less trade, constant war, unstable governments, decline of Church.

With a partner discuss how the share of power changed from the first kings to the creation of parliament.

  • Renaissance = rebirth of Greek & Roman culture that began in Italy,
  • Intellectuals & artists stressed importance of individual
    • (classic impact on modern Western Civil.)
  • Human worth led to a new spirit of optimism and inspiration for excellence
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
  • (“Renaissance man”) = painter, sculptor, architect, inventor & mathematician.
religious reformation
Religious Reformation
  • intellectual revolution = raised questions about Catholicism
  • Protestant Reformation = new branch of Christianity in Europe
  • Martin Luther = German Catholic monk, openly questioned many church practices (95 theses)
  • 1520 summoned before emperor & church officials in Worms to answer to charges of heresy.
  • Defended all of his writings based upon Scripture & upon human reasoning.
protestant churches
Protestant churches
  • (Lutheran, Calvinist, etc.) quickly spread throughout Europe
  • Catholic Church underwent a religious rebirth
  • Catholic & Protestant forces prepared for “religious” battle.
world religion
World Religion
  • Local Religions:
  • Australia = Aborigines had no deities.
  • Ancestor heroes created the work during “Dreamtime.” Belief in spirits of nature.
  • Africa = Various animist
  • (tribal) religions, south of the Sahara desert.
  • Belief in spirits and one supreme creator.

Japan = Shinto believers worship “kami” (sacred spirits take forms of nature.)

  • Worship ancestors and emperor. (Shintoism = found only among Japanese people.)
  • North America = Navajo religion must be practiced in the geographical area surrounded by the four sacred mountains of the American Southwest.
  • Hogans(dwellings) constructed to symbolize their land and religion.
  • Key Beliefs = life is full of suffering, follow Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana
  • Locations = India, migrated to East Asia
  • Key Beliefs = monotheism, Jesus = Son of God who died for sins of humanity, resurrection
  • Locations = began in Palestine, spread to south Africa, Europe, Australia and Americas
  • Key Beliefs = Spiritual philosophy on ethics & good government, respect for elders & ancestors
  • Location = China
  • Key Beliefs = polytheistic religion, 3 mains gods: Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver) Siva (destroyer)
  • Location = India, Ganges River (sacred)
  • Key Beliefs = monotheism, Muhammad = greatest of the prophets, Five Pillars
  • Locations = Middle East, north Africa & Indonesia
  • Key Beliefs = monotheism, follow teachings of Hebrew Bible (Torah.)
  • Locations = Israel, United States