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Standards and Assessment Alternatives. Standards-based Assessment. Content standards: describe the declarative knowledge or skills to be learned. Performance standards: describe the level of proficiency desired for mastery of learning targets.

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standards based assessment
Standards-based Assessment
  • Content standards: describe the declarative knowledge or skills to be learned.
  • Performance standards: describe the level of proficiency desired for mastery of learning targets.
  • Virtually all professional associations have developed lists of educational standards.
review of what to assess
Review of What to Assess
  • Focus on the assessment-based inferences.
  • A small number of clearly articulated and important learning targets.
  • Consideration of the type of learning outcomes desired (declarative, procedural).
a variety of assessment alternatives
A Variety of Assessment Alternatives
  • Norm-referenced (NRTs) vs Criterion-referenced (CRTs) assessment.
  • Selected- vs Constructed-response assessment schemes.
  • More traditional item types (e.g., M-C, T-F, short answer) vs Performance assessment.
nrts vs crts advantages and disadvantages
NRTs vs CRTs: Advantages and Disadvantages
  • CRTs are appropriate when clearly-defined standards or assessment domains exist, and the intent is to describe performance in terms of what a student knows and is able to do.
  • NRTs are appropriate when a clearly-defined norm group is available and the intent is to describe performance in terms of what is typical or reasonable.
  • An assessment can yield both types of interpretation.
assessment frames of reference ability
Assessment Frames of Reference: Ability
  • Compare student’s performance to potential performance.
    • Requires a good measure of potential performance.
    • Requires a knowledge of what skills and abilities are prerequisite to those to be learned.
    • Too often, children’s capabilities are prejudged according to class or group membership.
assessment frames of reference growth
Assessment Frames of Reference: Growth
  • Compares a student’s current performance to his/her earlier performance.
    • Higher scores go to those who evidence the most growth.
    • Requires reliable/valid measures of both earlier and current performance.
    • Requires a low relationship between measures of earlier and current performance.
assessment frames of reference norms
Assessment Frames of Reference: Norms
  • Compares a student’s performance to that of students in a well-defined norm group.
    • Norm group: another group assessed under the same or similar conditions.
    • Provides information regarding typical performance.
    • Does not provide information regarding what the student knows and is able to do.
assessment frames of reference standards
Assessment Frames of Reference: Standards
  • Compares student’s performance to well-established instructional standards.
    • Indicates what the student knows and is able to do with respect to the instructional standards (or content domain).
    • Does NOT provide information regarding whether the performance is typical or reasonable.
assessment frames of reference none
Assessment Frames of Reference: None
  • Some measurements provide no frame of reference for interpretation.
    • Mortimer attained a score of 63 on his math test.
    • Morticia got 75% correct on the same test.
    • Clem met the passing criteria (on the same test) of 80 items correct.