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Jonathan David Farley, D.Phil. lattice.theory@gmail Institut für Algebra

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## Jonathan David Farley, D.Phil. lattice.theory@gmail Institut für Algebra

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**Some Aspects of Quasi-Stone Algebras, IISolutions and**Simplifications of Some Problems from Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar Buy! Buy! Buy! Buy! Jonathan David Farley, D.Phil. lattice.theory@gmail.com Institut für Algebra Johannes Kepler Universität Linz A-4040 Linz Österreich Joint work with Sara-Kaja Fischer Universität Bern Bern, Switzerland Buy! Buy! Buy! This is a subliminal message.**Definition**A quasi-Stone algebra (QSA) is a bounded distributive lattice L with a unary operator ‘ such that: 0’=1 and 1’=0 (xy)’=x’y’ (xy’)’=x’y’’ xx’’ x’ x’’=1 *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Natural Example of a Quasi-Stone Algebra***** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Natural Example of a Quasi-Stone Algebra** *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Natural Example of a Quasi-Stone Algebra** The 1-element quasi-Stone algebra *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Natural Example of a Quasi-Stone Algebra** The 1-element quasi-Stone algebra (Also known as the Farley algebra.) *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Example of a Fuzzy Quasi-Stone Algebra***** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Example of a Fuzzy Quasi-Stone Algebra** *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Example of a Fuzzy Quasi-Stone Algebra** The 0.999999….-element quasi-Stone algebra *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Special Quasi-Stone Algebras**• Let L be a bounded distributive lattice. For any x in L, let x’ be 0 if x0 and 1 if x=0. • This makes L a quasi-Stone algebra, which we call special. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Special Quasi-Stone Algebras**• Let L be a bounded distributive lattice. For any x in L, let x’ be 0 if x0 and 1 if x=0. • This makes L a quasi-Stone algebra, which we call special. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Special Quasi-Stone Algebras**0’=1 and 1’=0 (xy)’=x’y’ (xy’)’=x’y’’ xx’’ x’ x’’=1 *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Problems of Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar from 1993**• Subdirectly irreducibles a. A problem about simple algebras b. A problem about injectives • Amalgamation a. Refutation of a claim of Gaitán b. Coproducts *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**1. Subdirectlyirreducibles***** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Finite Subdirectly Irreducible Quasi-Stone Algebras**• Let m and n be natural numbers. Let An be the Boolean lattice with n atoms. • Let Âm be the Boolean lattice with m atoms with a new top element adjoined. • Let Qmn be Âm An viewed as a special quasi-Stone algebra. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Finite Subdirectly Irreducible Quasi-Stone Algebras**• Let m and n be natural numbers. Let An be the Boolean lattice with n atoms. • Let Âm be the Boolean lattice with m atoms with a new top element adjoined. • Let Qmn be Âm An viewed as a special quasi-Stone algebra. Q11 Q20 *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Finite Subdirectly Irreducible Quasi-Stone Algebras**Theorem(Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar, 1993).The set of finite subdirectly irreducible quasi-Stone algebras is {Qmn : m,n0}. The set of finite simple quasi-Stone algebras is {Q0n : n0}. Q11 Q02 Q20 *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**P7**Problem(Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar, 1993). Are there non-Boolean simple quasi-Stone algebras? Solution(Celani and Cabrer, 2009). Yes, using a complicated example of Adams and Beazer. An uncomplicated example can be constructed using Priestley duality. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Priestley Duality for Bounded Distributive Lattices**• A partially ordered topological space P is totally order-disconnected if, whenever p and q are in P and p is not less than or equal to q, then there exists a clopen up-set U containing p but not q. q U p *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Priestley Duality for Bounded Distributive Lattices**• A Priestley space is a compact, totally order-disconnected partially ordered topological space. • Every compact, Hausdorff totally-disconnected space (i.e., the space of prime ideals of a Boolean algebra) is a Priestley space. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Priestley Space**Let P be the set {1,2,3,…}{} where the open sets are: any set Unot containing ; any co-finite set V containing . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Priestley Space**Let P be the set {1,2,3,…}{} where the open sets are: any set Unot containing ; any co-finite set V containing . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The clopen up-sets are the finite sets not containing and P itself. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Priestley Duality for Bounded Distributive Lattices**Theorem(Priestley). The category of bounded distributive lattices + {0,1}-homomorphisms is dually equivalent to the category of Priestley spaces + continuous, order-preserving maps. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**A Topological Representation of Quasi-Stone Algebras**Theorem(Gaitán). Let P be a Priestley space and let E be an equivalence relation on P with the property that: Equivalence classes are closed. For every clopen up-set U of P, E(U):={pP : pEu for some uU} is a clopen up-set of P and P\E(U) is a clopen up-set of P. Then the lattice of clopen up-sets of P with the operator U’:= P\E(U) is a quasi-Stone algebra, and every quasi-Stone algebra is isomorphic to such an algebra. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Gaitán’s Representation for Quasi-Stone Algebras**P *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Gaitán’s Representation for Quasi-Stone Algebras**P L {a,b,c} b c {a,b} {b,c} a {c} {b} *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Gaitán’s Representation for Quasi-Stone Algebras**P P\E()=P\={a,b,c} P\E({b})=P\{a,b}={c} P\E({a,b})=P\{a,b}={c} P\E({c})=P\{c}={a,b} P\E({b,c})=P\{a,b,c}= P\E({a,b,c})=P\{a,b,c}= L {a,b,c} b c {a,b} {b,c} a {c} {b} *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Gaitán’s Representation for Quasi-Stone Algebras**P P\E()=P\={a,b,c} P\E({b})=P\{a,b}={c} P\E({a,b})=P\{a,b}={c} P\E({c})=P\{c}={a,b} P\E({b,c})=P\{a,b,c}= P\E({a,b,c})=P\{a,b,c}= L {a,b,c} b c {a,b} {b,c} a {c} {b} x *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Fischer’s Representation for Congruences of Quasi-Stone**Algebra Let L be a quasi-Stone algebra with Priestley dual space P and equivalence relation E. Fischer proved that every congruence of L corresponds to a closed subset Y of P such that E(Y)=Y:={pP : py for some y Y}. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Fischer’s Representation for Congruences of Quasi-Stone**Algebra The quasi-Stone algebra L corresponding to this Priestley space P with E=PxP is simple: Any non-empty closed subset Y corresponding to a congruence must contain all maximal elements by Fischer’s criterion: E(Y)=Y. Hence Y must contain too. But L is not Boolean by Nachbin’s theorem. Thus Fischer’s criterion yields a solution to the problem P7 of Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar’s 1993 paper; Celani and Cabrer’s 2009 example was the first, but it is much more complicated. 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**P5**Definition. An algebra I is injective if for all algebras A, B and morphisms f:A B and h:A I, where f is an embedding, there exists a morphismg:BI such that h=gf. A class of algebras has enough injectives if every algebra can be embedded into an injective algebra. h A I g f B *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**P5**A class of algebras has enough injectives if every algebra can be embedded into an injective algebra. Problem(Sankappavar and Sankappanavar, 1993).Does the variety generated by Q01 have enough injectives? Solution(***). No: this follows almost from the definitions!! This variety does not have the congruence extension property. h A I Q10 Q01 g f B *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**P5**Problem(Sankappavar and Sankappanavar, 1993).Does the variety generated by Q01 have enough injectives? Solution(***). Any variety with enough injectives has the congruence extension property: Let A be a subalgebra of B and let f:A B be the embedding. Let θ be a congruence of A. Embed A/θinto an injective I. Then the kernel of g extends θ. QED. h A A/θ I A I g g f f B B *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**2. Amalgamation***** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Amalgamation Bases**Definition. An algebra L is an amalgamation base with respect to a class if, for all M and N in the class and embeddings f:LM and g:L N, there exist an algebra K in the class and embeddings d:M K and e:N K such that d f=e g. L M f g d N K *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer e**The Amalgamation Property**Definition. A variety has the amalgamation property if every algebra is an amalgamation base. L M f g d N K *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer e**P3**Problem (Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar, 1993).Investigate the amalgamation property for the subvarieties of quasi-Stone algebras. Gaitán (2000) stated that the proper subvarieties of quasi-Stone algebras containing Q01 do not have the amalgamation property. He used a difficult universal algebraic result of C. Bergman and McKenzie, which in turn depends on previous results of Bergman and results of Taylor. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**P3**Fischer found intricate combinatorial proofs that the amalgamation property fails for some subvarieties, proofs that we feel we can extend to all subvarieties except the varieties of Stone algebras (which have AP). Note that the kinds of arguments that work for pseudocomplemented distributive lattices do not work here because we do not have the congruence extension property. This is not “turning the crank”. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Gaitán’s Claim**• Gaitán also claimed that the class of finite quasi-Stone algebras has the amalgamation property. • We discovered, however, that Gaitán’s published “proof” is wrong. It does not simply have a gap: it is wrong. • Hence it remains an open problem to show if the class of (finite) quasi-Stone algebras has the amalgamation property. • A first step is to show that any two non-trivial quasi-Stone algebras can be embedded into some quasi-Stone algebra. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Coproducts**• A coproductof two objects A and B in a category consists of an object C and morphismsf:AC and g:BC such that, whenever D is an object and h:A D, k:BDmorphisms, there is a unique morphisme:C D such that e f=h and e g=k. A f g B C h k e D *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Free Quasi-Stone Extension of a Bounded Distributive Lattice**Theorem(Gaitán 2000). Let M be a bounded distributive lattice. There exists a quasi-Stone algebra N containing L as a {0,1}-sublattice, which is generated by M as a quasi-Stone algebra and is such that every lattice homomorphism from M to a quasi-Stone algebra A extends to a quasi-Stone algebra homomorphism from N to A. M N A *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Coproducts of Quasi-Stone Algebras**Theorem(***). Let K and L be non-trivial quasi-Stone algebras. Let M be the coproduct of K and L in the category of bounded distributive lattices. Let N be the free quasi-Stone extension of M. Let θ be the congruence of N generated by all pairs (k’K,k’N) and (l’L,l’N) for all kK and lL. Then the co-product of K and L in the category of quasi-Stone algebras is N/θ. *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Coproducts of Quasi-Stone Algebras**The coproduct of K and L in the category of bounded distributive lattices has 9 elements. The coproduct in the category of quasi-Stone algebras has 324 elements. L K *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer**Summary and Next Steps**• Fischer’s representation of the duals of congruences gives us a simpler solution to the 1993 problem of Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar than Celani and Cabrer’s 2009 example. • We solved Sankappanavar and Sankappanavar’s 1993 problem about injectives (which is trivial: one can apply a result of Kollár 1980). • We showed that Gaitan’s “proof” that the class of finite quasi-Stone algebras has the amalgamation property is wrong. • We proved coproducts exist in the category of quasi-Stone algebras. • What are the Priestley duals of principalcongruences? • What is the Priestley dual of a coproduct of quasi-Stone algebras? *** Jonathan D. Farley V Sara-Kaja Fischer