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Chapter 11. Theatre’s Revival in Europe. Theatre in the Renaissance The Commedia dell’arte. Period of the Renaissance (ca 1350-1650) Martin Luther (1483-1546) and the Protestant Revolution Commedia dell’arte A people’s theatre popular from 1550-1750

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Chapter 11


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    1. Chapter 11 Theatre’s Revival in Europe

    2. Theatre in the RenaissanceThe Commedia dell’arte • Period of the Renaissance (ca 1350-1650) • Martin Luther (1483-1546) and the Protestant Revolution • Commedia dell’arte • A people’s theatre popular from 1550-1750 • Actors and actresses who traveled and performance impromptu farces • Emphasis on comic routines (i.e. slapstick) and romantic intrigue between young lovers and their parents and betweens masters and their servants

    3. Theatre in the RenaissanceAristotle Returns • The Poetics is “rediscovered” by European scholars and artists • Aristotelian Scholasticism • Humanism and the liberal arts • The three unities of time, place, and action • Declamatory acting style • Beginnings of opera

    4. Theatre in the RenaissanceThe Italian Perspective • Perspective drawing to perspective scenery • Converging lines • The vanishing point • Three dimensional scenery on flats • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) • First theatre architect; credited with inventing perspective painting • Stage techniques • Raked stage – upstage and downstage

    5. Theatre in the RenaissanceSpanish Drama • Golden Ages of Spanish Drama • Lope de Vega (1562-1635) • The most prolific and idealist playwright • The Sheep Well – most popular play • Calderon (1600-1681) • Wrote “cloak and sword” plays • His plays use symbolism and depth to explore the human condition • Life is a Dream – his most well known play

    6. Elizabethan Theatre • Elizabeth I reigned from 1558 – 1603 • Puritans • Wanted to purify the church by abstaining form amusements and sensual pleasures • Permanent Theatre buildings • Indoor • Catered to the wealthy • Outdoor • Permitted all members of society to attend • The Theatre (1576) was the name of the first such theatre built since the time of the Romans by James Burbage • Environment for the theatre • Bear baiting, prostitution, and gambling

    7. Elizabethan TheatreThe Globe • Performances began at 2:00 pm • Flags were used to advertise the plays • Box office • Groundlings and gallery patrons • Verbal scene painting • Costumes and props • Special effects • Music and dance

    8. Elizabethan TheatreActors • Masterless rogues and vagabonds • A company of 8-15 players • Shareholders • Employed for a single production • Boy apprentices • Patronage of the nobility • Lord Chamberlain’s Men • The King’s Men

    9. Elizabethan TheatreWilliams Shakespeare (1564-1616) • Born and died in Stratford • Started as an actor with the Lord Chamberlain’s Men • Wrote 37-38 plays and poetry • Combined popular appeal with poetic sensibilities that were profound and poignant in their beauty • Knew the dramaturgical tradition but did not hesitate to break the rules • Coined over 1,600 words and phrases in the English language

    10. Elizabethan TheatreShakespeare's Contemporaries • Thomas Kyd (1558-1594) • The Spanish Tragedy (1589) • Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593) • Challenged the status quo with his plays • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus (1589) was one of his most well known plays • Murdered under a suspicious cloud when he was only 29 years old • Ben Jonson (1573-1637) • Lead a checkered life as a young actor and playwright • Rose to become England’s first poet laureate • Wrote many well known plays and masques • Upon Shakespeare’s death, he worked conscientiously to advocate for the publication of his plays

    11. Elizabethan TheatreMasques and Antimasques • Masques – elaborate court entertainments that emphasized poetry, spectacle, music and masks • Inigo Jones (1573-1652) • Most influential set designer in the English theatre • The Masque of Blackness (1605) • The Players Scourge (1632) • The antimasque tradition

    12. Restoration Drama • Restoration • The Puritan Civil War of 1643 • Restoration of Charles II in 1660 • Comedy of Manners • William Congreve (1670-1729) • The Way of the World (1700) • Women as performers and playwrights • Alphra Behn (1640-1689) • The Rover, or the Banished Cavalier (1677 and 1681)

    13. French Neoclassic Theatre • The Three Unities (time, place, and action) • Academie Francaise • Tragedy • Jean Racine (1639-1699) • Phaedra (1677) • Comedy • Molière(1622-1673) • Tartuffe (1664) and The Imaginary Invalid (1673)

    14. Theatre in the Age of ReasonIdeas and Beginnings • Age of Enlightenment (ca 1650-1800) • Emphasis on man’s ability to reason • Great Minds of the Enlightenment • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) - considered the father of the Enlightenment • Galileo (1565-1642) - advocated for a heliocentric view of the world • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) • John Locke (1632-1704) • Founding Fathers of the United States • Thomas Jefferson • Ben Franklin • Thomas Paine

    15. Theatre in the Age of EnlightenmentRevolutionary Theatre • Domestic tragedies • George Lillo (1693-1739) • The London Merchant (1731) • Voltaire (1694-1778) • Mahomet (1742) • Gotthold Lessing (1729-1781) • Nathan the Wise (1779) • Sentimental comedies • Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816) • The Critic (1779) • Pierre Beaumarchais (1732-1799) • The Marriage of Figaro (1786) • The Barber of Seville (1816)

    16. Romanticism and the Birth of Melodrama • Romanticism • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) • Confessions • Edmond Rostand (1868-1918) • Cyrano de Bergerac (1897) • Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832) • Faust (1808 and 1832) • Melodrama • Combines melody and drama • Formulaic plots with easily defined characters • Poetic justice