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3D to 2D

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# 3D to 2D - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

3D to 2D. Orthographic Projection Delineation Techniques Clipping Plane Methodology. Graphical Representation. The vast majority is 2D representation of 3D objects Technical Documentation – Construction Documents, basic communication with peers

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### 3D to 2D

Orthographic Projection

Delineation Techniques

Clipping Plane Methodology

Graphical Representation
• The vast majority is 2D representation of 3D objects
• Technical Documentation – Construction Documents, basic communication with peers
• 3D conception –> 2D representation –> 3D realization
• Computer Models can be “photographed” – images and line drawings can be generated much faster than can be drawn
• Extraction Methodology – design in 3D, extract 2D
Orthographic Projection
• A means of representing a three-dimensional (3D) object in two dimensions (2D)
• A perspective projection with a hypothetical viewpoint—e.g., one where the camera lies an infinite distance away from the object and has an infinite focal length, or "zoom". (parallel projection)
• Multi-view Orthographic Projection
• Axonometric Orthographic Projection

Non-Orthographic (Perspective)

Orthographic

Multi-View Orthographic
• Each projection plane is parallel to one of the coordinate axes of the object resulting in visual distortion / abstraction
Architectural Plan
• Also called plan view. a drawing made to scale to represent the top view or a horizontal section of a structure
Architectural Section
• A representation of an object as it would appear if cut by a plane, showing its internal structure.
Architectural Elevation
• A drawing or design that represents an object or structure as being projected geometrically on a vertical plane parallel to one of its sides.
Axonometric
• Axonometric
• A skewed Orthographic Projection so that multiple sides are visible at once
• a three-dimensional object is represented by a drawing having all axes drawn to exact scale, resulting in the optical distortion of diagonals and curves
• Trimetric – arbitrary foreshortening
• Isometric
Isometric
• a three-dimensional object is represented by a drawing having the horizontal edges of the object drawn usually at a 30° angle and all verticals projected perpendicularly from a horizontal base, all lines being drawn to scale
Clipping Planes
• Uses Orthographic Cameras – Relatively Universal
• Extracts from solids or surfaces alike
• Uses two planes perpendicular to the focal length of the camera – Near Clipping Plane and Far Clipping Plane
• Only displays graphical information between the near clip and the far clipping plane
Plotting to File with Clipping Planes
• The clipping plane method can be used in conjunction with the plot to file method. Plotting to file allows three important options in a single method –
• Allows rendering – allows the use of hidden line projection to “hide” lines that should be obscured with planes in 3D space.
• Flattens the drawing – gets rid of the Z dimension and flattens the 3D model to a 2D vector drawing
• Separates the line drawings – Drawings can be edited in respect to themselves without adversely altering the model
Plotting to File with Clipping Planes – AutoCAD Method
• Import the 3D model
• Page Setup Manager for a real-scale vector file
• Set up the layout for the desired view
• View
• Scale
• Use clipping planes to “cut”
• Use hidden line rendering on the viewport
• Plot to file
• Import plotted file into a [new] drawing
• Make it pretty
• Poche
• Entourage
• Line weight
Plotting to File with Clipping Planes
• 3 datasets to manage
• Original model file
• Multiple layouts preferably – one for each “view”
• Vector files (DXB)
• Individual plot files with extensions that are not .dwg.
• These are not opened, but imported
• The Presentation file
• All vector files are imported here for cleanup and delineation