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Tundras Savannas

Tundras Savannas

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Tundras Savannas

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  1. TundrasSavannas Daniel Vought Elizabeth Harrington Janice Eda

  2. Tundra Savanna Found at high altitudes & high elevations Found on either side of the equator Typically located between 55°N & 80°N Located around 30°-40°S & 30°-50°N Mainly in the Arctic but Alpine-Tundra conditions found throughout the world’s high elevations Mostly in Africa, but also in India, South America & Australia

  3. Savannah Sub-Classes • Woodland Savannah • Acacia savannah • East Africa • Pine savannah • Sandy soils of Central America • Grass Savannah • Serengeti Plains • Climatic Savannah • Result from climatic conditions of distinct wet/dry seasons • Edaphic Savannah • Caused by soil conditions preventing deep root systems • Derived Savannah • Due to people clearing the land for cultivation

  4. Savannah • Tropical wet-dry climate • warm or hot temperatures at or above 64°F • annual rainfall of anywhere from 20 mms to 50 inches • concentrated rainfall in 6-8 months • long drought period invoking fires during low sun period • Maintained by seasonal fires & violent thunderstorms

  5. Vegetation • Continuous perennial grass coverage • Roots containing starch reserves lay dormant until the rains wipe out the fires • Able to grow up to an inch within 24 hrs • Rhodes, Star, Lemon & Red Oat • Forbs • Small broad-leaf • Underground stems protected from fire by soil • Fire-resistant trees • Typically do not exceed 10 ms in height • Vascular bundles scattered in trunk rather than around the outer layer providing protection against fire & give the ability to rejuvenate

  6. Soil • Porous • Low fertility • Rapid water drainage • Thin layer of humus • Laterization: created by alternating wet and dry seasons exposing the lateritic soils to the sun • makes the ground impermeable to water • prevents root penetration • inhibits tree growth

  7. Life in the Savanna Capybara Asian Elephant Rhea Leopard Kangaroo

  8. Climate • Tundra • Climate: 6-10 months winter season with temperatures below freezing • Annual rainfall of 5-10 inches • Short growing season • Soil: relatively unknown due to permafrost

  9. Arctic Tundra • Encircles the North Pole & extends south to coniferous forest • usually contains frozen subsoil • Divided by latitudes • High Arctic Tundra • Confined to islands of the Arctic Ocean • Characterized by perennial forbs, moss, lichen • Middle Arctic Tundra • Arctic Coastal Plain with freeze-thaw activity • Low Arctic Tundra • Woody shrubs, willow, birch, needleleaf evergreen

  10. Alpine Tundra • Located on mountains at high altitudes • Well-drained soil • Freeze-thaw follows a diurnal cycle rather than a seasonal cycle like that of the Arctic Tundra • Unable to sustain tree life • Tussock grass, dwarf trees, small-leaf shrubs, heaths

  11. Soil & Vegetation • Relatively unknown due to permafrost • Permafrost composed of gravel & finer material • After water saturates the upper surface, moisture sinks & plant life is sustainable • Vegetation: protected by snow cover in winter • Ground-hugging and warmth preserving plants • Grouped closely • Dwarf shrubs, sedges, mosses, lichens

  12. Life In the Tundra Arctic Fox Elk Caribou Polar Bear

  13. Vegetation Caribou Moss-actually a lichen not a moss. Caribous and reindeer feed on it. Acacia Senegal-Small sized thorn tree located in the African Grassland Gum Tree Eucalyptus-commonly in the plains and savannas of Australia. Can grow 20-30 feet Bermuda Grass- Common type of grass through the Savannas of Africa The Yellow Tundra Flower.

  14. Graphics and info from • http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm • http://www.Ucmp.berkley.edu • http://www.runet.edu • http://www.wikipedia.org