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Political Parties and Interest Groups. Party Functions. Organize the Competition Unify the Electorate Help Organize Government Translate Preference into Policy Provide Loyal Opposition. Organize the Competition. Recruit and nominate candidates for office.

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slide1

Political Parties

and

Interest Groups

party functions
Party Functions
  • Organize the Competition
  • Unify the Electorate
  • Help Organize Government
  • Translate Preference into Policy
  • Provide Loyal Opposition
organize the competition
Organize the Competition

Recruit and nominate candidates for office

Register and activate voters

Raise money

Provide candidates with research and voter lists

Enlist volunteers

organize the competition1
Organize the Competition

The ability of parties to influence the selection of candidates varies by the nominating system used in the state.

organize the competition2
Organize the Competition

The ability of parties to influence the selection of candidates varies by the nominating system used in the state.

Caucus

Meeting of party leaders and active members.

organize the competition3
Organize the Competition

The ability of parties to influence the selection of candidates varies by the nominating system used in the state.

Caucus

Meeting of party leaders and active members.

Closed Primaries

Require voters to indicate their party affiliation before Election Day.

organize the competition4
Organize the Competition

The ability of parties to influence the selection of candidates varies by the nominating system used in the state.

Caucus

Meeting of party leaders and active members.

Closed Primaries

Require voters to indicate their party affiliation before Election Day.

Open Primaries

Voters choose which party primary in which to participate on Election Day.

organize the competition5
Organize the Competition

The ability of parties to influence the selection of candidates varies by the nominating system used in the state.

Caucus

Meeting of party leaders and active members.

Closed Primaries

Require voters to indicate their party affiliation before Election Day.

Open Primaries

Voters choose which party primary in which to participate on Election Day.

Blanket Primaries

Voters cast ballots for candidates for any party on Election Day.

slide9

Types of Ballots

Party Column Ballot

President

p Sam Sludge (Democrat) p Charley Chum (Republican)

Governor

p Jane Jungle (Democrat) p Randy Rough (Republican)

U.S. Senator

p Walt Wilt (Democrat) p Don Dandy (Republican)

Representative

p Lucy Luck (Democrat) p Fred Fiddle (Republican)

slide10

President

p Sam Sludge (Democrat)

p Charley Chum (Republican)

Governor

p Jane Jungle (Democrat)

p Randy Rough (Republican)

U.S. Senator

p Walt Wilt (Democrat)

p Don Dandy (Republican)

Representative

p Lucy Luck (Democrat)

p Fred Fiddle (Republican)

Types of Ballots

Office Block Ballot

unify the electorate
Unify the Electorate

There is a strong incentive in both parties to fight out their differences inside the party but then come together to take on the opposition.

In order to win elections, parties need to reach out to voters outside their party and gain support.

help organize government
Help Organize Government

Congress is organized along party lines. The political party with the most votes in each chamber elects the officers of that chamber, select the chair of each committee, and has a majority on all the committees.

help organize government1
Help Organize Government

Patronage

Dispensing government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party.

Because of the Civil Service Act, patronage is limited to the top posts which number about 4,000 in the federal government.

help organize government2
Help Organize Government

Patronage

Dispensing government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party.

Plum Book

A list of the patronage jobs in the federal government.

Because of the Civil Service Act, patronage is limited to the top posts which number about 4,000 in the federal government.

translate preference into policy
Translate Preference into Policy

American parties have only limited success in setting the course of national policy.

Because American parties do not control nominations, they are unable to discipline members who express views contrary to those of the party.

provide loyal opposition
Provide Loyal Opposition

After a polite interval following an election - the honeymoon - the opposition party begins to criticize the party that controls the White House.

The length of the honeymoon depends in part on how contentious the agenda of the new administration is and on the leadership skills of the new president.

roles of political parties
Roles of Political Parties

eople Participation

rgue for Balance

P

A

R

T

I

E

S

aise Funds

o Lead

ssue Identification

ducate the Voter

elects Candidates

slide18

Spacial Theory of Elections

This theory assumes that all political issues can be represented by a single left-right scale, and that all parties, politicians, and voters can be placed on this scale.

Voters know exactly where they and the candidates stand on the issue scale.

All people vote choosing the candidate whose views are closest to theirs.

Assumptions

slide20

Spacial Theory of Elections

Median Voter Hypothesis

The best possible position for a politician who cares only about winning elections is the center -- that is, in the position of the median voter.

Campaign to the right in primary elections then move to the center in the national election.

slide21

United States

Two-Party System

Congress and State Legislatures are divided into districts. Each district elects a single member by plurality as its representative.

Third party

candidates almost

always lose in this

type of system.

slide22

Great Britain

Multiparty System

Districts are not designated with the Multiparty system. Candidates run at large and the legislatures are divided by the proportional vote a party received in the election. Such a system benefits third party candidates in an election.

(Proportional Representation)

slide23

Parties as Institutions

The supreme authority in both major political parties is the …

NATIONAL PARTY CONVENTION

… which meets every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, and adopt party rules.

slide24

Parties as Institutions

National Committee

Rank-and-file operating committee of a political party

Committee Chair

The top official who leads the National Committee

Campaign Committee

Congressional and Senate committees who recruit candidates, train them, and assist members with campaign funds.

slide25

Party Auxiliaries

Federation of Republican Women

Young Democrats

Log Cabin Republicans

Parties as Grass Roots

State Committee

County Committee

slide26

Party Auxiliaries

Federation of Republican Women

Young Democrats

Log Cabin Republicans

Parties as Grass Roots

State Committee

In recent elections the campaign efforts of state and county organizations have been aided by financial assistance from the party’s national committee, which has distributed millions of dollars in soft money.

County Committee

slide27

Parties in Government

Legislative Branch

Chairs come from the majority party

Leaders of Congress come from the majority party.

Congressional staffs are partisan

Patronage jobs awarded (Doormen, elevator operator, chaplain, police)

Executive Branch

Senior White House staff and cabinet members usually come from the president’s party.

Cabinet-level appointments, ambassadorships, advisers all come from the president’s party.

slide28

Parties in Government

Judicial Branch

Lifetime appointments provide judges with a nonpartisan position.

Judges do not sit on the bench by political party.

Party identification remains an important consideration in the naming of federal judges.

slide29

Parties in Government

State & Local Levels

Parties are unimportant in the government of city councils or school boards.

In most states, parties are important to the operation of the legislatures and executive branches.

Nebraska’s legislature is nonpartisan.

slide30

Party in the Electorate

Party Registration

The purpose of party registration is to limit the participants in primary elections to members of that party and to make it easier to contact people who might vote for their party

slide31

Party Regulars

Place the part first

Value winning elections

Willing to compromise to reach their objectives.

Candidate Activists

Followers of a particular candidate.

Usually not interested in other party activities

Issue Activists

They wish to push the party in a particular direction based on issues: abortion; taxes; school prayer; environment; civil rights.

Party in the Electorate

Party Activists

slide32

Party Identification

An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood, a standing preference for one party over another.

Party identification is the single best predictor of how people will vote.

Strong Republicans or Democrats participate more actively in politics than any other group.

Pure independents vote at the lowest rates and have the lowest levels of interest and awareness.

slide33

Critical Elections

&

Part y Realignment Theory

CriticalElections

Elections that disrupt party coalitions and create new ones in party realignment.

Party Realignment

A long-term shift in the electoral balance between the major parties.

slide34

Party Dealignment

Party Dealignment

A trend in which voter loyalties to the two major parties weakens.

slide35

First Party System (1796-1824)

Federalists

• Strong central government

• Conservative

• Capitalist interests

• Broad interpretation of the

Constitution

History of Political Parties

Adams

Democratic-Republicans

• States Rights

• Liberal

• Agricultural interests

• Strict interpretation of the

Constitution

Jefferson

slide36

Van Buren

Polk

Pierce

Buchanan

Second Party System (1828-1826)

Democrat

• “Common Man”

• Strong Central

Government

• Western interests

Jackson

History of Political Parties

Whigs

• Anti-Jackson Party

• Abolitionists

• Anti-Expansion

Harrison

Taylor

slide37

Third Party System (1860-1892)

Democrat

• States Rights

• Conservative

• Broad interpretation of the Constitution

History of Political Parties

Republican

• Strong Central Government

• Liberal

• Abolitionists

Lincoln

slide38

Fourth Party System (1896-1928)

Republican

• Defended business

• Supported the gold standard

• Opposed the

Progressive Movement

History of Political Parties

McKinley

Democrat

• Expansion of the money

supply - silver

• Represented farmers & workers

• Supported the

Progressive Movement

Cleveland

slide39

Fifth Party System (1932-Present)

Democrat

• Support New Deal Programs

• Opposed “laissez-faire”

• Progressive Tax Program

History of Political Parties

F.D.R.

Republican

• Endorse “laissez-faire”

• Support a flat tax

• Endorse the interests of the

upper-middle class and

the wealthy.

Reagan

slide40

Third Parties

Doctrinal Parties

Professes a particular doctrine

Environment

Consumer Protection

slide41

Third Parties

Transient Parties

Short-lived which emerge our of economic protests and secessionist movements

slide42

Party

Reforms

Australian Ballot

Direct Primary

Merit Civil Service System

slide43

Federal Election Commission

A bipartisan commission that has responsibility to enforce campaign finance laws and to administer public funding of presidential elections.

The six-member commission is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

slide44

Campaign Rules

Contribution Limits

•Individuals can give no more than

$5,000 a year to a PAC or political party.

• Contributions to any candidate is

limited to $2,000 per election.

• The total contribution is limited to

$95,000 per year.

slide45

Campaign Rules

Public Financing

• Matching funds for candidates in

primary elections up to $5 million.

• Public funding is available to

presidential nominating

conventions.

• Public funding is provided for

general election campaigning.

slide46

Campaign Rules

Spending Limits

• Presidential candidates may spend

no more than $50,000 of their own

money if they accept public funding.

• Candidates are limited to the

amount they spend in each state.

(16¢ per voting-age resident and

adjusted for inflation)