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Chapter 12 Motivating Employees. CATEGORIES OF MOTIVATION THEORIES. Content Theories Concerned with WHAT people need or want Process Theories Concerned with HOW people think and behave to get what they want Reinforcement Theories

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categories of motivation theories
CATEGORIES OF MOTIVATION THEORIES
  • Content Theories
    • Concerned with WHAT people need or want
  • Process Theories
    • Concerned with HOW people think and behave to get what they want
  • Reinforcement Theories
    • Concerned with the effects of REWARDS upon motivated behavior

(Some consider it a Process Theory)

content theories
CONTENT THEORIES
  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
    • Maslow
    • Alderfer
  • Two-Factor Theory
    • Herzberg
  • Acquired Needs Theory
    • McClelland
maslow s hierarchy of needs from lowest to highest
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS (from lowest to highest)
  • Physiological
  • Safety (Security)
  • Belongingness (Social)
  • Esteem
  • Self-Actualization
alderfer s erg theory
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
  • Existence
  • Relatedness
  • Growth
frustration regression principle erg theory
FRUSTRATION-REGRESSION PRINCIPLE (ERG Theory)
  • Failure to meet a higher-order need may trigger a regression to an already fulfilled lower-order need

Example: Worker who cannot fulfill a need for personal growth may redirect efforts toward making money.

herzberg s two factor theory
HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
  • Hygiene Factors (mostly extrinsic, e.g., a nice office)
    • Influence Dissatisfaction

(The best Hygiene Factors can provide is “No Dissatisfaction” – They don’t motivate.)

  • Motivators (mostly intrinsic, e.g., enjoyment of work responsibility, etc.)
    • Influence Satisfaction
mcclelland s acquired needs successful top executives
McCLELLAND’S ACQUIRED NEEDS - Successful Top Executives:

NEED LEVEL (Hi, Mod., Lo?)

Achievement Moderate

Affiliation Low

Power High

applications of content theories
APPLICATIONS OF CONTENT THEORIES
  • Job Enrichment
  • Flexible Work Schedules
process theories
PROCESS THEORIES
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
goal setting theory
GOAL-SETTING THEORY
  • Assumes having clear goals increases motivation
  • Challenges and Feedback are especially important
equity theory
EQUITY THEORY
  • Unique in viewing motivation as affected by Comparisons to other people.
  • We don’t necessarily expect to get the same rewards as others, but we expect the Ratio of our Outcome to Input to be equivalent to that of others.
  • We are Motivated to correct inequity.
dealing with inequity
DEALING WITH INEQUITY
  • Change your Input
  • Change your Outcome
  • Distort (Change) your Perceptions
    • (of either input or outcome of you or the comparison person)
  • Leave the Job
  • Change Comparison Persons
expectancy theory
EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • Analyzes the parts of the Motivation Process that the Leader must attend to (c.f., Path-Goal Theory)
  • Has the greatest Breadth of popular motivation theories
expectancy theory concepts
EXPECTANCY THEORY CONCEPTS
  • EXPECTANCY
    • Effort-Performance Relationship (E-P)

(The most Unique feature of the theory)

  • INSTRUMENTALITY
    • Performance-Outcome Relationship (P-O)
  • VALENCE
    • Value of Reward

If any of the three equal Zero, then there is No Motivation.

major elements of reinforcement theory
MAJOR ELEMENTS OF REINFORCEMENT THEORY
  • Stimulus
    • Supervisor requests faster work
  • Response
    • Employee increases or decreases speed or does nothing
  • Consequence
    • Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinf. (Avoidance), Extinction, Punishment
behavioral consequences
BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES
  • Positive Reinforcement
    • Receive desirable outcome (Money)
  • Negative Reinforcement
    • Avoid undesirable outcome (Prevent reprimand)
  • Extinction
    • Lack of reinforcement (Behavior ignored)
  • Punishment
    • Undesirable outcome occurs (Get fired)
applications of reinforcement theory
APPLICATIONS OF REINFORCEMENT THEORY
  • Organizational Behavior Modification (OB MOD)
  • Pay for Performance (Merit Pay)
  • Gain Sharing
  • Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
  • Lump-Sum Bonuses
  • Pay for Knowledge
minimizing reward problems
Minimizing Reward Problems
  • Measure performance accurately
  • Give team rewards for interdependent jobs
  • Ensure that rewards are valued
  • Beware of unintended consequences
some rewards lower level managers may control
Some Rewards Lower-Level Managers May Control
  • Recognition, such as letters of appreciation
  • Invitations to coffee or lunch
  • Recommendations for pay increases or promotions
  • Time off
  • Desirable work assignments
job simplification
Job Simplification
  • Pursues efficiency by reducing the number of tasks one person must do

(However, workers dislike routine and boring jobs.)

job rotation
Job Rotation
  • Systematically moves employees from one job to another.

(However, skill level is unchanged.)

job enlargement
Job Enlargement
  • Combines a series of tasks into one new, broader job.
job enrichment
Job Enrichment
  • Incorporates high-level motivators into the work.
job characteristics model

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

Meaningfulness

Autonomy

Responsibility

Feedback

from job

Knowledge

of results

Individual

Differences in

Growth Needs

Job Characteristics Model

Core Job

Characteristics

Critical

Psychological

States

Outcomes

Work

motivation

Growth

satisfaction

General

satisfaction

Work

effectiveness

implementing job enrichment
Implementing Job Enrichment
  • Training is typically needed
  • Short-term performance declines are normal

Dangers in Job Enrichment

  • Some people have low “Growth Need Strength”
  • Employees may expect higher pay
major implications of motivation theories
MAJOR IMPLICATIONS OF MOTIVATION THEORIES
  • Set Challenging, but Attainable Goals
  • Train and Encourage People
  • Provide Valued Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
    • Recognize Individual Differences
    • Watch for Changes in an Individual’s Motives
  • Use Mainly Positive Reinforcement
  • Distribute Rewards Equitably