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Induction Training. Nutrition. Next. Back. Home. Welcome…. Welcome to this web based information session on Nutrition. It should take you approximately 20 minutes to complete this material. How to use this pack To go to the next page, please click the button.

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nutrition

Induction Training

Nutrition

Induction Training

slide2

Next

Back

Home

Welcome…

Welcome to this web based information session on Nutrition. It should take you approximately 20 minutes to complete this material.

How to use this pack

To go to the next page, please click the button.

To go to the previous page, please click the button.

To go to the first page, please click the button.

To display additional points on a page click the button. Additional information will be displayed in a separate font.

Blue bullets indicate how many times to have to click to display all the information.

Show Me

Induction Training

slide3

Aims & Objectives…

By the end of this session you will have knowledge of:

What good Nutrition is

Different Nutrient groups

The Balance of good health

The effects of malnutrition

Nutrition requirements for older People

Nutrition requirements for older People with Dementia

Nutrition requirements for people with Learning Disabilities

Nutrition requirements for children and Young people

Induction Training

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Introduction to Nutrition…

Nutrition is an important subject for all of us but maybe even more so for the service users we work with. Mealtimes are important parts of the day in the lives of service users whether they are older people in Residential Homes or younger people cared for in their own homes.

Good food is necessary for a person’s well being and this applies in equal measures to the nutritional values that keep us healthy as well as the pleasurable experiences that food give us.

When working with service users your role will be to raise awareness of the importance of nutrition in older people, vulnerable adults as well as children and young people.

Induction Training

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Introduction to Nutrition…

So how much do you know about nutrition already? You’re probably aware of your 5 a day fruit and vegetables, not too eat too much fast food and drink plenty of water. But how are nuts good for us if they are really high in calories and which vitamins does the body need?

First let’s have a look at the 5 food groups that we consume:

Fruit and Vegetables

Bread, Rice, Potatoes and Pasta

Milk and Dairy Foods

Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans

Foods and Drinks high in fat and/or sugar

Induction Training

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Introduction to Nutrition…

We can eat foods from each of the groups, but this should happen in the proportions indicated in the chart below.

Induction Training

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Introduction to Nutrition…

A variety of foods is the key to good nutrition, therefore, it is important that all the food groups on the previous page are included in meals. This doesn’t have to happen for every meal, but should happen over the course of a day. Click the Show Me arrows for information on these groups.

Fruit and vegetables

Show Me

Eat at least 5 portions a day. Overall this should make up 1/3 of your daily food intake and can be used as healthy snacks.

Bread, Rice, Potatoes, Pasta

Show Me

This group is called carbohydrates and should also make up 1/3 if your diet. Unrefined carbohydrates i.e. wholegrain foods are rich in fibre and better for you than refined foods such as white bread.

Induction Training

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Introduction to Nutrition…

The next three groups should make up the final third of your diet.

Eat or drink in moderate amounts as they have a high saturated fat content but are also an important source of calcium.

Milk and dairy foods

Show Me

Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar

Eat only small amounts of foods containing fat and sugar, as they are ‘empty’ calories, i.e. they are high in energy but low in nutrients. These can be regarded as occasional treats.

Show Me

Meat, fish, eggs and beans

Eat moderate amounts of these. This food group includes both animal and plant sources of protein, which is needed for cell growth and repair.

Show Me

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Over the next few pages we will have a look at the different nutrient groups to help you understand their values.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provide energy and is the term used to describe both starch and sugar in food. Starch is the main component of cereals, pulses, grains and root vegetables. The term ‘sugar’ is often assumed to describe something white and granular found in

sugar bowls, but in fact the sugars found in foods can be quite variable and include sugars found naturally in foods such as milk, vegetables and fruits.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Examples of the food that contain carbohydrates are:

STARCH

All types of bread and rolls

Chapattis and other flat

breads

Rice and other grains

All types of pasta and

spaghetti

Noodles

Breakfast cereals

Potatoes

Yams

Plantains

SUGARS

Fruits

Vegetables

Milk sugars (lactose)

Table sugar

Honey

Sweets

Chocolate

Cakes & Biscuits

Soft drinks

Squashes

Fruit juice

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Fibre

This is food material from cereal and vegetable foods which is not broken down in the small intestine of humans and is essential for maintaining a healthy digestive system. Fibre is important to prevent constipation and other bowel disorders. Some types of fibre known as soluble fibre are important for lowering blood cholesterol levels.

Fibre is contained in

Wholemeal bread , Wholegrain breakfast cereals,

Pulses (peas, lentils and beans – including baked beans,

kidney beans and butter beans), Dried and fresh fruit and

vegetables

Soluble fibre is found in fruit, oats and beans and pulses.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Protein

Protein is needed for growth and the maintenance and repair of body tissues. From hair to fingernails, protein is a major functional and structural component of all our cells.Proteins are large molecules made up of long chains of amino acid subunits. Some of these amino acids are nutritionally essential as they cannot be made or stored within the body and so must come from foods in our daily diet.

Protein is contained in

Milk, Meat, poultry and fish, eggs, cheese, Tofu, Pulses such as

peas, lentils and beans (including baked beans), nuts and seeds,

Cereal foods such as bread and rice.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Vitamins

It is important to get enough different vitamins and most people should be able to get all they need by eating a varied and balanced diet. Some vitamins are mainly found in animal derived foods, whereas others come from plant foods. Vitamins fall into two groups:

Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin A, D, E and K

These are stored in the body.

Vitamin A in food can be

destroyed by heat or by

oxidation if left exposed

to the air.

Water-soluble vitamins

B vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin,

niacin, B6, B12, folate and

Vitamin C

These are not stored in the body

and are water soluble, so they are

more likely to be destroyed by

heat or by oxidation if left

exposed to the air.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Fat

Fat provides the most concentrated form of energy in the diet. It provides 9kcals per gram of fat, compared with 4kcals per gram for protein and carbohydrate.

Do you know what the types of fat are that are found in food sources?

Show Me

Unsaturated fats

which are found mainly in plants and fish, also including monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.

Saturated fats

which are mainly from animal sources.

Trans fats

which are found mainly in manufactured foods that use hydrogenated oils.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Although we all try to avoid eating too much fat, some fat in the diet is actually essential because fat-soluble vitamins – vitamins A, D, E and K – cannot be taken up by the body otherwise.

However, diets that are high in total fat and saturated fat are associated with high blood cholesterol levels and this is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. It is best to use unsaturated fats in cooking and as spreading fats, and to cut down on the amount of food that is high in saturated fat.

Let’s have a look at some examples of foods containing these different types of fat.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Unsaturated Fats

Monounsaturated fats

Olive oil &

rapeseed oil

Avocado

Nuts and seeds

(almonds, cashews,

hazelnuts, peanuts

and pistachios)

Some margarines and

spreads are made

from

monounsaturated

fats.

Polyunsaturatedfats

Corn oil, sunflower

oil and soya oil

Nuts and seeds

(walnuts, pine nuts,

sunflower seeds

and

sesame seeds)

Some margarines

and spreads are

made from

polyunsaturated fats.

Omega-3 fats

Fish oil

Oily fish such as

herring, mackerel,

pilchards, sardines,

salmon, trout and

fresh tuna.

Induction Training

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Nutrient Groups…

Saturated fats

Butter

Hard cheese

Fat in meat and poultry

Meat products

(such as sausages, processed

meats and meat pies)

Biscuits

Cakes

Cream

Lard

Dripping

Suet

Ghee

Coconut oil and palm oil

Trans fats

Some pastries, cakes, biscuits,

crackers, deep-fried foods,

take-away foods and

ice cream desserts.

Foods that have

‘hydrogenated oils’ or

‘hydrogenated fat’ in

the list of ingredients

are likely to contain trans fats.

Induction Training

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The Balance of Good Health…

We’ve already discussed that healthy eating means getting the balance right between all the food and nutrient groups. In addition to that, water is an important component of healthy eating.

Water makes up about two-thirds of our body weight. And it's important for this to be maintained because most of the chemical reactions that happen in our cells need water. We also need water for our blood to be able to carry nutrients around the body. So how much should we drink? The Food Standards Agency says:

In climates such as the UK, we should drink approximately 1.2 litres (6 to 8 glasses) of fluid every day to stop us getting dehydrated. In hotter climates the body needs more than this.

Induction Training

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The Balance of Good Health…

Some people don’t particularly like plain water, so if you come across any service users like that what do you think you could encourage them to drink instead?

Show Me

Sparkling water – it has a little more taste than plain water

Water with a little fruit juice or squash for taste

Add a slice of lemon or lime to the water to brighten it up

Fruit Juice or Fruit Smoothies

Milk

Tea or Coffee – however, caffeinated drinks act as diuretics, which mean the body produces more urine and through that loses fluids again. It’s important that caffeinated drinks aren’t the only source of fluids.

Induction Training

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The Balance of Good Health…

Finally, to achieve a balance of good health we need to add exercise to the list.

Our energy needs are based on a) our Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) which is the basic energy requirement to keep our bodies functioning, and b) our levels of physical activity. People who are not very active have much lower energy needs and therefore will need less food to maintain their body weight. This means that it may be harder to include all the nutrients needed for good health.

On the other hand, people that are inactive but don’t alter their level of energy intake are at risk of being overweight or obese. This can lead to a number of health complications such as coronary heart disease and diabetes and often means that they have reduced energy levels.

Induction Training

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The Balance of Good Health…

We’ve just seen why exercise is such an important component to healthy eating and general well being, therefore, everyone should be encouraged to take exercise. Of course some of the service users you look after may be very frail or may be wheelchair users, but even then, anybody that can do a little walking should be encouraged to do so and wheelchair users can be encouraged to move their arms or legs if they are able to do so.

Let’s have a look at what the effect can be if a service user doesn’t have all their nutritional needs served. Malnutrition is a real danger and can often go unnoticed because service users themselves and their families don’t have much knowledge about it.

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Malnutrition can contribute to a wide number of health problems in older people. Do you know what those are?

Show Me

Constipation and other digestive disorders

Anaemia

Diabetes

Muscle and bone disorders, including osteoporosis, osteomalacia and osteoarthritis

Obesity

Coronary heart disease and stroke

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Constipation

Constipation is most common among old and frail people, especially if they don’t get enough exercise, have difficulties in moving and getting about or are confined to bed. It can be caused by not getting enough fluids, not getting enough fibre and sometimes as a side effect of medication.

Therefore, it is important to encourage service users to drink approx. 6-8 glasses of fluids a day. You should also watch out for service users who have chewing difficulties, no teeth or poorly fitting dentures, as they tend to be the ones not getting enough fibre. We have already covered the types of food that include fibre earlier in the module.

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Anaemia

This is caused by low iron levels and can cause paleness, tiredness, breathlessness on exertion and palpitations. People with anaemia may also be more prone to infections. In a large American study, low iron levels were shown to be a predictor of death from all causes, particularly coronary heart disease among men and women over 70 years.

Corti MC, Guralnik JM, Salive ME et al. 1997. Serum iron level, coronary heart disease and all cause mortality in older men and women. American Journal of Cardiology; 79: 120-27

It is possible that anaemia is caused by internal disease, however, if this reason has been excluded then service users should be encouraged to eat iron rich food such as liver, kidney, red meat, oily fish, pulses and nuts as well as folate rich foods such as green leafy vegetables, citrus fruit, fortified bread, breakfeast cereals and yeast extract to combat anaemia.

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Diabetes

It is estimated that between 7% and 10% of elderly people in residential and nursing care have diabetes. A healthy diet including plenty of fruit and vegetables, less fat, especially saturated fat, less sugar and more fibre will go a long way towards treating this illness. For further information on Diabetes, please complete the Diabetes eLearning module.

Muscle and Bone disorders

As well as a healthy diet, physical activity is needed to maintain bone and muscle strength and preventing falls. Also, Vitamin D will help with this and the main source of vitamin D for most people is that formed in the skin by the reaction to sunlight. Therefore, do encourage service users to spend time outside on a nice summer’s day.

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Obesity

People that are overweight or obese may be restricted in their movement, resulting in the muscle and bone disorders mentioned previously. Also, if they have been advised to lose weight by reducing their food intake, they may be at risk of not getting enough nutrients. Any specific eating plans should be drawn up by a professional, but you can still encourage them to follow the principles of healthy eating.

Coronary heart disease and stroke

Forty per cent of all deaths among over-65-year-olds are caused by

coronary heart disease or stroke! This is specifically connected to high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels, both of which can be improved through a healthy diet.

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Coronary heart disease and stroke … continued

Evidence shows that increasing fruit and vegetable intakes by 1-2 portions a day may decrease cardiovascular risk and increasing intakes of oily fish has also been shown to reduce cardiovascular death.

Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D et al. 1995. Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. Journal of the American Medical Association; 273: 1113-17.

Department of Health. 1994. Diet and Cardiovascular Disease. London: HMSO.

Therefore, you may have a significant positive impact on your service users through encouraging them to eat more fruit, vegetables and fish and also more starchy foods such as bread. Some older people may have a very small appetite and should be encouraged to eat whatever foods they can, but if they have a good appetite you should encourage them to limit their intake of saturated fats as well as salt. Where more flavour is needed it may be possible to add herbs, spices, lemon juice, mustard, onions and celery instead of just salt.

Induction Training

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The effects of malnutrition…

Finally, there is evidence that good nutrition helps older people to recover better from operations and illnesses. Your service users may need to undergo surgery and good nutrition has been shown to play an important part in the prevention of complications such as infection and to assist in the healing process.

As you can see encouraging your service users to follow a healthy diet and helping them to make good choices is likely to have a very positive impact on their well being and health.

Let’s have a look now at some of the service user groups that may be at risk of malnutrition because of their special conditions.

Induction Training

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Older people…

As people get older their bodies change and this can affect the intake, digestion, absorption and utilisation of nutrients. A lot of the older people you look after also take medication, which can equally have an impact on this.

It is quite normal for people – of any age – to eat less food if their calorie requirements fall. However, at very low levels of calorie intake, there is a greater possibility that the level of intakes of some nutrients in the diet will become dangerously low. This can lead to muscle loss, weakness and a further decrease in activity generally. Weak muscle power can make some older people feel unsteady on their feet, and fear

of falling may deter them from trying to be more active.

Induction Training

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Older people…

Malnutrition is a very real concern for older people and includes both undernutrition and overnutrition. However, in residential care there tend to be more underweight than overweight people and in old age being underweight poses a greater risk to health.

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS 1998) of people aged 65 years and over found that 3% of men and 6% of women living at home were underweight, while comparable figures for those in residential care were 16% and 15% respectively.

Given these figures it is important that you are aware of the things that can negatively impact somebody’s appetite or ability to eat, watch out for them and alert the relevant people where necessary.

Induction Training

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Older people – Mouth and Teeth…

One common area where problems can occur for a service user is in their mouth. Older people should continue to have check-ups annually to identify potential problems, whether or not they have natural teeth.

How to you think mouth and teeth can be affected by age?

Show Me

Taste buds are lost leading to diminished taste perception

Salivary glands become more fibrous, this leads to dry mouth and increased potential for decay

The tongue enlarges which may affect chewing

Tooth pulp deteriorates

Gum disease is common leading to inflammation and exposed roots, also there is poor bone support

Dentures may be ill fitting

Induction Training

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Older people - Dysphagia…

Dysphagia, i.e. difficulty swallowing, often occurs after a stroke, throat and mouth cancer or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) which is a condition where stomach acid leaks back up into the oesophagus. It is estimated that 30-40% of elderly people staying in nursing homes have some degree of dysphagia!

People can range from having no swallow reflex at all, to managing modified textures of food. It is often easier to control the swallowing action with foods that are of a smooth, thick consistency rather than liquids e.g. mashed potatoes with gravy or thick custards.

Where the swallow reflex is completely lost or if someone is unable to manage sufficient nutrition, they may be fed using a special tube down their nose into their stomach (nasogastric) or directly into their stomach (gastrostomy).

Induction Training

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Older people with Dementia…

A high number of the elderly service users you will be looking after will be ones suffering from Dementia. Dementia causes cognitive changes, such as forgetfulness as well as neurological changes, such as slowing of movements, which can lead to a decrease in muscle tone and poor balance.

Dementia can cause physical, physiological and emotional changes in a person and all this can have an impact on their eating habits. The next pages will explore these.

Induction Training

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Older people with Dementia…

  • Physical Changes
  • The service user may:
  • Be unable to use
  • cutlery
  • Lack coordination
  • to get food into
  • their mouth
  • Be unable to
  • unwrap or peel items
  • Be unable to
  • sit for meals
  • Be extremely
  • slow in eating
  • Physiological Changes
  • The service user may:
  • Have lost their
  • sense of smell & taste
  • Have lost their
  • appetite
  • Have difficulty
  • swallowing
  • Be unable to chew
  • Have mouth or
  • tooth pain
  • Show a preference
  • for sweet food
  • Emotional Changes
  • The service user may:
  • Be distracted
  • from eating
  • Forget to eat or
  • forget having eaten
  • Have difficulty
  • making choices
  • Eat food with
  • their hands
  • Be unable to
  • communicate hunger
  • or thirst

Induction Training

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Older people with Dementia…

All of the points of the previous page may have a negative impact on the eating habits of people with Dementia. Sometimes medication can also hinder a person to eat by making them too drowsy.

Some less common behaviour patterns can include service users insisting on the same food at every meal, refusing food because they

don’t believe they can pay for it, hoarding food in the mouth but not swallowing it, not chewing food, spitting food out or asking for unusual food choices. Part of your role will be to help service users make good choices, reassure them and encourage them to eat and eat a healthy diet.

Induction Training

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Older people with Dementia…

  • We have already explored the effects of malnutrition on older people and people with dementia are even more prone to them as they are more likely to be underweight. This can be as a result of:
      • Inadequate food intake
      • Increased energy requirements
      • Depression
      • Medication
  • In addition, a study reported that the significant indicator for weight loss among people with dementia was a gradual loss of ability to eat independently. You can help reverse that trend by giving appropriate assistance to your service users.
  • Let’s now have a look at what could help people with dementia when it comes to eating.

Induction Training

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Older people with Dementia…

Make sure service users with dementia have enough time to eat.

Maintain eye contact and don’t talk to somebody else whilst offering food to your service user.

Encourage dementia patients to keep their independence as long as possible. If you do need to assist them, treat them with dignity and respect.

Give small mouthfuls and adequate time to swallow each mouthful before continuing.

Make sure the eating environment is calm and quiet.

Use verbal prompts, talk about the food you’re offering.

Offer a variety of food. There is a common misconception that people with dementia find choice too confusing, but with your help and support they they may be able to make choices.

Sensory cues may help, this can include the sights and smells of food preparation or picture cards.

People with dementia may need specialist cutlery to help them.

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

We’ve have just had a detailed look at older people and older people with dementia, but that may not be the only group of service users you look after. Let’s now move on to looking at people with Learning Disabilities, this will include both children and adults.

Of course, the general principles of healthy eating apply to this group in exactly the same way as any other group, however, people with learning disabilities have their own unique characteristics and challenges, so it is worth exploring those here.

Let’s first have a brief look at how Learning Disabilities can affect different aspects of people’s lives. For further information on Learning Disabilities, please complete the Learning Disabilities eLearning module.

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

Learning Disabilities range from mild to severe and at the severe end of the spectrum people may find most tasks associated with daily living impossible to carry out without assistance, and may well have a number of physical and health difficulties which impact on their quality of life.

Communication– Communicating thoughts and feelings can be difficult and frustrating for people with severe learning disabilities. The person may not be able to talk clearly and communication may be by signing (eg. Makaton) or through other forms of non-verbal communication such as gestures, body language, facial expressions or by using resources such as Talking Mats. In addition the person may not be able to understand speech unless very simple language and short sentences are used.

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

Challenging behaviour– People with severe learning disabilities may show aggressive, disruptive or socially unacceptable behaviours and may have little or no sense of danger. Such behaviour may well be an expression of an underlying problem such as pain or distress.

Physical difficulties– restricted mobility, motor skills, posture, wallowing, chewing and eating difficulties may make simple tasks of daily living difficult.

Illhealth– People with severe learning disabilities are more likely also to have other physical and mental health difficulties which impact on daily life such as epilepsy, autistic spectrum disorders, sensory impairments, gastrointestinal disorders (problems with the digestive system) and respiratory problems.

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

You can probably already see from the list how some of those difficulties can impact on eating habits. How do you think this impact manifests itself?

Show Me

Faddy and selective eating

Food refusal

Inability to correctly use knives, forks, cups etc

Difficulty getting food onto utensils

Hoarding, hiding or throwing food

Wandering or restlessness during mealtimes

Distress at changing routines

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

Eating disorders

You may meet service users with learning disabilities that also have eating disorders, as these have been reported to be more prevalent among this group compared with the rest of the population.

In a project carried out for people with learning disabilities in South London, 13% were found to have binge eating disorder and about 1% anorexia nervosa. The causes of eating disorders are complex and poorly understood, but among people with learning disabilities they have been associated with being younger, having reported abuse, having poorer social networks, having difficulties with eating and drinking, and having other behavioural disorders. If you notice any behaviour that you think could indicate an eating disorder be sure to report it so the service user can be observed and helped.

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

Other problems that people with Learning Disabilities often face are:

Constipation – People with cerebral palsy are at particular risk of constipation because of abnormal gastrointestinal motility and some drugs that people with learning disabilities have to take cause constipation as a side effect.

Swallowingdifficulties - There is a high incidence of eating, drinking and swallowing difficulties among people with learning disabilities.

Coeliacdisease - People with Down’s or Turner syndrome are more likely than the rest of us to have coeliac disease. Coeliac disease means that gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, barley and oats) cannot be tolerated and this may cause diarrhoea and malabsorption of nutrients.

Induction Training

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People with Learning Disabilities…

Earlier in the module we already covered what can help with regards to constipation and swallowing difficulties (disphagia) for older people and although the causes may be different in people with learning disabilities, the way to address it them the same.

If a person is diagnosed with coeliac disease they require a gluten-free diet for life, and advice on how to manage this should be given by a registered dietitian.

Let’s now have a look at what could help people with learning disabilities when it comes to eating.

Induction Training

slide45

People with Learning Disabilities…

Provide verbal cues to aid chewing and swallowing where necessary.

Offer easy to use eating utensils, cups with handles or straws where appropriate.

If chewing and swallowing is difficult and choking is a hazard purée and thicken food.

Make sure that mealtimes are calm and try and encourage people to eat together.

If a service user interrupts food service or wants to help, give the person a role in the meal service, such as setting the table, or

pouring water.

If wandering compromises food intake, encourage the

person to use finger food while wandering.

If the service user is getting distracted from eating make sure they have been to the toilet, have their glasses, dentures or hearing aid and are sitting comfortably. Other people modelling eating may help.

If a service user gets very impatient, make sure that they are not alerted to meals too early, are offered something to eat if they have to wait for a meal to arrive, or that meals are served in small courses to minimise waiting times.

Induction Training

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Children and Young People…

Let’s finally have a look at some of the things important for children and young people. Again, the principles of healthy eating, taking exercise and drinking plenty of water apply to children and young people in the same way as they do for the other groups.

This group may however be more concerned than the others about body image, so you should consider what you can do to help achieve having a positive body image. For many young people the relationship between food, eating and body weight are highly complex. It is therefore essential that you deal sensitively with issues of being underweight and overweight.

Induction Training

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Children and Young People…

If you are involved in the care of looked after children and young people you should make sure you give positive messages about healthy eating, reinforced by positive attitudes to healthy lifestyles. How do you think this can be achieved?

Show Me

Do not use derogatory language about your own or other people’s body shapes

Do not comment on people’s food choices

Promote good health and physical fitness (where possible)

Promote an acceptance of a variety of healthy body shapes

Induction Training

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Children and Young People…

So in a nutshell, carers should promote healthy body weight and body image among looked after children and young people by providing an environment in which they have the opportunity to eat healthy food and where the play and exercise they enjoy are actively enabled and encouraged.

Children and young people who need to gain weight should eat regular meals and snacks throughout the day. They also need to keep active to stimulate their appetite.

Increasing any activity or sport that

children and young people enjoy and are able to do is vitally important for encouraging well-being and promoting a healthy body weight for children and young people that are overweight.

Induction Training

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Review…

This module has covered the subject of Nutrition and how it affects older people, older people with Dementia, people with Learning Disabilities and children and young people.

The principles of good nutrition apply in the same way to all these groups, but each group has their own requirements and challenges and it is important for you to understand how you can help them to achieve good nutrition. This might be with encouraging words, promoting positive body image or in more practical ways by helping create an calm environment for eating, prompting and assisting people to eat.

Where exercise is possible, it is highly encouraged as part of a healthy lifestyle and can include gentle walking or moving arms and legs for people that are in a wheelchair.

Induction Training

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References…

The Caroline Walker Trust http://www.cwt.org.uk/

Eating well: children and adults with learning disabilities

Dr Helen Crawley (2007) ISBN: 9781897820230

Eating well for looked after children and young people

The Caroline Walker Trust (2001) ISBN: 9781897820124

Eating well for older people

The Caroline Walker Trust (2004) ISBN: 9781897820186

Eating well for older people with dementia

VOICES ISBN: 0953269260X

The full reports can all be downloaded from the Caroline Walker Trust website and a donation is encouraged.

Induction Training

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Induction Training