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Minerals. Lecture 7. What are minerals?. Small, naturally occurring, inorganic, chemical elements Regulate body processes Give structure to things in the body No calories (energy) Cannot be destroyed by heat. Categories of minerals. Trace minerals Chromium Copper Flouride Iodine

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  1. Minerals Lecture 7

  2. What are minerals? • Small, naturally occurring, inorganic, chemical elements • Regulate body processes • Give structure to things in the body • No calories (energy) • Cannot be destroyed by heat

  3. Categories of minerals • Trace minerals • Chromium • Copper • Flouride • Iodine • Iron • Manganese • Selenium • Zinc • microminerals • Major minerals • Calcium • Phosphorus • Magnesium • Electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium) • sulfur • macrominerals are essential at levels of 100mg or more per day for human adults

  4. The electrolytes • There are 3 major electrolytes: • sodium • potassium • chloride

  5. Sodium (Na) • deficiency: • dehydration • acidosis • tissue atrophy • excess: • edema • hypertension • Sodium is the principal cation in extracellular fluids • functions include: • osmotic equilibrium (fluid balance) • acid-base balance • carbon dioxide transport • cell membrane permeability • muscle irritability • food sources: table salt, salty foods (potato chips, pretzels, etc.), baking soda, milk. • RDA for adults: 1.1 to 3.3 gm/day

  6. Potassium (K) • The principal cation in intracellular fluid • functions: • buffer constituent • acid-base balance • water balance • membrane transport • neuromuscular irritability • deficiency (hypokalemia) • causes: • increased renal excretion (diuretics) • primary aldosteronism • severe vomiting and diarrhea • cutaneous losses via perspiration • excess(hyperkalemia) • causes: • sudden increased intake • severe tissue trauma and burns, acute and chronic acidosis • Food sources: vegetables, fruit (bananas), whole grains, meat, milk; RDA for adults: 1.5 - 4.5 gm/day

  7. Chloride (Cl) • an essential anion • closely connected with sodium in foods, body tissues and fluids and excretions • readily absorbed along with sodium • important for osmotic balance, acid-base balance and in the formation of gastric HCl • Deficiency of chloride: • hypochloremic alkalosis • hypovolemia • pernicious vomiting • psychomotor disturbances

  8. Calcium (Ca) • the most abundant of the minerals • the 5th most abundant element in the body • needed by all cells • found in largest amounts in bones (90%) • controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and vitamin D • about 1/2 is in the ionized form in serum • the other 1/2 forms calcium citrate complex

  9. Calcium • function of calcium: • structural unit of bones and teeth • contraction and relaxation of muscles • stabilizes nervous tissue • low calcium --- irritable nerves --- tetany • high calcium --- depresses the nervous irritability • required for blood clotting • activates various enzymes (glycogen phosphorylasekinase, salivary and pancreatic amylase) • RDA • adult: 800 mg/day • pregnacy and lactation: 1200 mg/day

  10. Phosphorus • Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body • required in many phases of metabolism • foods rich in calcium are also richest in phosphorus (milk, cheese, eggs, beans, fish) • RDA for phosphorus is established on the basis of a 1:1 relationship with calcium • Adults: 700 mg/day • Pregnancy and lactation: • Younger than 18: 1250 mg/day • Older than 18: 700mg/day • Generates energy • Regulate energy metabolism • Component of bones, teeth • Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair)

  11. Magnesium • second most plentiful cation in intracellular fluids • ~50% of total amount in bone • ~45% in muscle and nervous tissue • ~ 5% in extracellular fluids • Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body functions) • Maintains cells in nerves, muscles • Component of bones • Best sources are all green plants (chlorophyll); meats • RDA: 350 mg/day • pregnancy and lactation: 450 mg

  12. Copper (Cu) • Deficiency • decreased iron absorption • neutropenia • bone demineralization • failure of erythropoiesis • sources • liver, shellfish, whole grains, cherries, legumes, nuts • important trace mineral • component of several enzymes • needed to form hemoglobin and collagen

  13. Fluorine • Considered essential because of its beneficial effect on tooth enamel • Benefits include: less dental caries, stronger bones, reduction in osteoporosis • In large quantities it is deleterious to teeth; dental fluorosis: chalky, dull white patches and mottling of teeth • 1 to 2 parts per million is adequate for drinking water • Main sources include drinking water and plants (spinach, lettuce, onions) • Average daily intake: 1.5 – 4.0 mg/day

  14. Iodine • iodine is necessary for the formation of thyroid hormones (T-4 thyroxine and T-3 triiodothyronine) • deficiency of iodine is manifested by a goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland) • salt water fish and seaweeds are a good source of iodine • to prevent the development of endemic goiter, table salt has been spiked with sodium iodide

  15. Chromium • Cr III may act as a cofactor for insulin, enhancing glucose utilization • deficiency leads to impaired glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance factor) • chromium may have a role in type 2 diabetes • sources: corn oil, whole-grain cereals, drinking water (variable) • RDA: 0.05 – 0.2 mg • frequently available in pharmacies as chromium picolinate

  16. Manganese • Deficiency leads to: • Weight loss • Transient dermatitis • Nausea and vomiting • Changes in hair color • Sources: blueberries, wheat bran, beet greens, lettuce, legumes, fruit • RDA: 2.5 – 5.0 mg • Maganese is an activator of several different enzymes: • Phosphoglucomutase • Isocitricdehydrogenase • Cholinesterase • Intestinal peptidase • Carboxylases • ATPases • However, magnesium and cobalt can replace Mn in several enzymes

  17. Iron (Fe) • Types of body iron (Dietary Iron) • Heme iron (animal source) • hemoglobin, myoglobin, catalases, peroxidases, cytochromes (a, b and c – involved in electron transport), cytochrome P450 (involved in drug metabolism) , • Non-heme iron (vegetables/cereals) Ferritin, transferrin • Enzymes—methane monooxygenase (oxidizes methane to methanol), • Ribonucleotide reductase (reduces ribose to deoxyribose; DNA biosynthesis)

  18. Food Iron non-heme iron • vegetables • fruits • legumes • nuts • breads and cereals only ~ 3 of non heme iron is absorbed heme iron • meats • poultry • fish 20-23% of heme-iron is absorbable

  19. Iron absorption • average diet contains 10 - 15 mg of iron per day • a normal person absorbs 5 -10% of this iron or 0.5 - 1.0 mg daily • occurs in upper part of small intestine • also requires copper • ferrous is better absorbed than ferric form • iron absorption increases in response to low iron stores • pregnant women: 3 - 4 mg per day

  20. Iron distribution and storage • stored in 2 forms: • ferritin (a water soluble complex consisting of a core of ferric hydroxide and a protein shell (apoferritin) • hemosiderin (a particulate substance consisting of aggregates of ferric core crystals) • stored in liver, spleen, bone marrow, intestinal mucosal cells and plasma

  21. IRON DEFICIENCY Causes: • excessive blood loss (parasitic, accidental): is most common cause • rapid growth in children with limited intake of iron • malabsorption • gastric resection • sprue • increased metabolic requirement • pregnancy, lactation or neoplasia

  22. IRON DEFICIENCY Initial symptoms • easy fatigability • lack of appetite • headache • dizziness • palpitations then: hypochromic-microcytic anemia • microcytosis (small RBCs) • hypochromia (poor fill of hemoglobin) • poikilocytosis (bizarre shapes) • anisocytosis (variable/unequal sizes)

  23. Diagnosis of iron deficiency • hematology (microcytichypochromic cells) • low serum iron • low serum ferritin ( indicates low body stores) • low hemosiderin • high total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

  24. Treatment of iron deficiency • give 200 - 400 mg of iron per day • up to 25% of the iron preparation may be absorbed • parenteral iron is used in patients who have had bowel resections or in cases of inflammatory bowel disease • normally given IM (painful) • oral iron causes black stools, constipation, cramping • do not administer with antacids or metal chelators (tetracyclines)