CREATING AMERICAN CULTURE. Cultural Nationalism Literature / Art Values / Virtues Religious Reforms Women’s Reforms Slavery & Abolition Economics & Immigration. American Virtues / Values (Republican Virtues). Self-Reliance
Slavery & Abolition
Economics & Immigration
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
(2nd Great Awakening)
Charles FinneyReligious – Spiritual Movements Lead to Social Movements
In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country…Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.
-- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832
Evangelical – Protestant – Revivalists Movement(Religious Change from Within)
(Activist Expression of Faith / Conversion)
New Churches and Denominations( Baptist, Church of Christ, etc..)
New Congregational Churches (Congregation LEADS the Church)
Express “New Birth in Christ” with your actions and Good Deeds
Transform your life & Society
HUGE Impact on Society (explosion of Social Change)
African Americans Christians
Southern Worship / Teaching Bible
Huge impact on Slaves in South / Anti-Slavery Sentiments
A.M.E. Church (North)
“Spiritual Reform From Within”[Religious Revivalism]
Social Reforms & Moral Ideals of
Liberty & Equality
Asylum &Penal Reform
Transcendentalists(spiritualism)worship of Nature – the Individual
“Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe”. (Belief in:)
Ralph Waldo Emerson – personal emotions (your feelings guide you)
Henry David Thoreau (French Enlightener) simplicity, anti-materialism, anti-society
Unitarian Movement (spiritualism)
Logic & Reason over emotions to perfection
Utopian Societies (perfect society)
Anti Industrial Society Movement
Create their own society (opposite of current)
Combine Individual Freedom with Common Ownership (Socialism) *doesn’t work
New Harmony, IN
1821 first penitentiary foundedin Auburn, NY
Religious TrainingSecular Education *early IVY League * other training
MA always on the forefront
of public educational reform
* 1st state to establish tax support
for local public schools.
By 1860 every state
free public education.* US had the highest
in the world.
(frugality, hard work, humility, sobriety)
Troy, NY - Female Seminary
* curriculum: math, physics, history, geography.
* train female teachers
1837 she establishedMt. Holyoke [So. Hadley, MA] as the first college for women.
The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society.
American Women’sSuffrage Assoc.
Edited Woman’s Journal
Women's Rights Movement
1840 split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it.
London World Anti-Slavery Convention
(NO Women allowed)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments
Women’s Suffrage - (right to vote)
Education -by 1890 2,500 graduate from colleges Elizabeth Blackwell (1st Medical Dr.) -1857 starts 1st U.S. school of Nursing
Dorethea Dix (Improve prisons /Mental Hospitals)
1826 - American Temperance Society“Demon Rum”!
The Beecher Family
From the first glass to the grave, 1846