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CREATING AMERICAN CULTURE. Cultural Nationalism Literature / Art Values / Virtues Religious Reforms Women’s Reforms Slavery & Abolition Economics & Immigration. American Virtues / Values (Republican Virtues). Self-Reliance

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creating american culture
CREATING AMERICAN CULTURE

Cultural

Nationalism

  • Literature / Art
  • Values / Virtues

Religious Reforms

Women’s Reforms

Slavery & Abolition

Economics & Immigration

american virtues values republican virtues
American Virtues / Values(Republican Virtues)
  • Self-Reliance
  • Hard Work / Sacrifice
  • Frugality (don’t waste…save)
  • Moral Values
    • Honor
    • Integrity
    • Humility
slide4
Romance Era Writers (American Literature - themes) *nature of man, *struggles of evil, morality
  • Washington Irving
    • Rip Van Winkle / The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne
    • The Scarlet Letter
  • Herman Melville
    • Moby Dick
  • Edgar Allen Poe
    • “father of modern short story”
slide11
A myth of the West as a land of romance , opportunity and adventure emerged.
  • Manifest Destiny
  • ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and … self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that … for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."
religious spiritual movements lead to social movements
(Transcendentalism)

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Henry David Thoreau

(2nd Great Awakening)

Charles Finney

Religious – Spiritual Movements Lead to Social Movements
slide13

The Rise of Popular Religion

In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country…Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.

-- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832

R1-1

slide14
Second Great Awakening (Religion) Kentucky & Tennessee

Evangelical – Protestant – Revivalists Movement(Religious Change from Within)

(Activist Expression of Faith / Conversion)

New Churches and Denominations( Baptist, Church of Christ, etc..)

New Congregational Churches (Congregation LEADS the Church)

Express “New Birth in Christ” with your actions and Good Deeds

Transform your life & Society

HUGE Impact on Society (explosion of Social Change)

African Americans Christians

Southern Worship / Teaching Bible

Huge impact on Slaves in South / Anti-Slavery Sentiments

A.M.E. Church (North)

slide16

The Second Great Awakening

“Spiritual Reform From Within”[Religious Revivalism]

Social Reforms & Moral Ideals of

Liberty & Equality

Education

Temperance

Abolitionism

Asylum &Penal Reform

Women’s Rights

spiritual religious no moral authority moral authority
SpiritualReligious(NO moral authority) (Moral Authority)

Transcendentalists(spiritualism)worship of Nature – the Individual

“Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe”. (Belief in:)

    • Self-Directed Faith
    • Self-Created GOD
  • They rejected all Secular Authority, the Law, the authority of Organized churches, the Scriptures, Conventional Values or Ideas of Morality
slide18
Transcendentalists(spiritualism)

Ralph Waldo Emerson – personal emotions (your feelings guide you)

Henry David Thoreau (French Enlightener) simplicity, anti-materialism, anti-society

Unitarian Movement (spiritualism)

Logic & Reason over emotions to perfection

Utopian Societies (perfect society)

Anti Industrial Society Movement

slide19
Utopian Societies (perfect society)

Create their own society (opposite of current)

Combine Individual Freedom with Common Ownership (Socialism) *doesn’t work

Richard Owen

New Harmony, IN

slide20

Penitentiary Reform

Dorothea Dix

(1802-1887)

1821  first penitentiary foundedin Auburn, NY

R1-5/7

slide22

Education Reforms

Religious TrainingSecular Education *early IVY League * other training

MA  always on the forefront

of public educational reform

* 1st state to establish tax support

for local public schools.

By 1860 every state

offered

free public education.* US had the highest

literacy rates

in the world.

slide23
Education Reform Expands
    • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 required SCHOOLS to be built within the town
    • Mass. & Vermont compulsory Education Laws
  • Universal Public Education 1850’s
      • Public Tax Supported School
    • Teaching Values – Citizenship
      • REPUBLICAN VALUES
        • McGuffy Readers Textbook
    • Horace Mann / school reformer
      • Father of American Education
slide24

the McGuffy Readers

  • Used religious parables to teach “American values.”
  • Teach middle class morality and respect for order.
  • Teach “3 R’s” (Reading, wRiting & aRithmatic)
    • + “Protestant ethic” (Republican Virtues)

(frugality, hard work, humility, sobriety)

R3-8

slide25

Women Educators

Troy, NY - Female Seminary

* curriculum: math, physics, history, geography.

* train female teachers

Emma Willard(1787-1870)

1837  she establishedMt. Holyoke [So. Hadley, MA] as the first college for women.

Mary Lyons(1797-1849)

slide26

Cult of Domesticity

The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society.

Lucy Stone

Angelina Grimké

Sarah Grimké

American Women’sSuffrage Assoc.

Edited Woman’s Journal

Southern Abolitionists

R2-9

slide27
Women’s Rights Movement
  • Laws Limit Women’s Rights (customs – Cult of Domesticity)
  • Religious Inspiration / Social Concerns Abolition Movement / Women’s Rights
  • Sarah & Angelina Grimke
    • 1836 Appeal to Christian Women of South
    • Southern ABOLITIONISTS
slide28

R2-6/7

Women's Rights Movement

1840  split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it.

London World Anti-Slavery Convention

(NO Women allowed)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Lucretia Mott

1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments

slide29
Women’s Rights Movement
  • Religious Inspiration / Social Concerns Abolition Movement / Women’s Rights
  • Laws Limit Women’s Rights (customs – Cult of Domesticity)
  • Sarah & Angelina Grimke
    • 1836 Appeal to Christian Women of South
  • 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention – women excluded
  • Seneca Falls Convention
slide30
Seneca Falls Convention(1st) Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Women’s Suffrage - (right to vote)

Education -by 1890 2,500 graduate from colleges Elizabeth Blackwell (1st Medical Dr.) -1857 starts 1st U.S. school of Nursing

Dorethea Dix (Improve prisons /Mental Hospitals)

slide31

Temperance Movement

1826 - American Temperance Society“Demon Rum”!

Frances Willard

The Beecher Family

R1-6

slide32

“The Drunkard’s Progress”

From the first glass to the grave, 1846

slide33
Temperance Movement
    • Abstinence (NOT drink alcohol)
    • Fix social problems by attacking the root of the problems
slide34
Alcohol consumption as it relates to major SOCIAL PROBLEMS:
    • Abuse
    • Lack of Parenting
    • Crime
    • Poverty
    • Etc….
  • Will lead to PROHIBITION in the 1900’s
    • NO making, selling, distribution of Alcohol