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Observer Scanner Training. Electronic Searches Section 3 by 1st Lt. Alan Fenter. Section 1:. Objective: Discuss electronic equipment, including the reasons for its survivability, and the way to insure proper search coverage. The Success of ELT’s depend on. Life of the battery

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observer scanner training

Observer Scanner Training

Electronic Searches

Section 3

by 1st Lt. Alan Fenter

section 1
Section 1:
  • Objective:
  • Discuss electronic equipment, including the reasons for its survivability, and the way to insure proper search coverage.

Level II Technician Rating

the success of elt s depend on
The Success of ELT’s depend on
  • Life of the battery
  • Survivability
  • Whether or not the unit was armed or not

Level II Technician Rating

elt system
ELT System

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check for understanding
What does ELT stand for?Check for Understanding

Emergency Locator Transmitter

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check for understanding1
On what three factors does the success of electronic searches depend?Check for Understanding
  • Life of ELT batteries
  • Survivability of ELT
  • Whether the unit was turned on or not.

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check for understanding2
What means can be used to insure adequate, thorough coverage during a search?Check for Understanding

Use both an electronic search & a general concentrated search

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section 2
Section 2:
  • Objective:
  • Given statements concerning the track line pattern, select true ones from false.

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electronic search patterns

C

½ SM

B

½ SM

Track of Missing Aircraft

A

Electronic Search Patterns
  • Most effective is the Track Line Search
  • Flown from 5000 to 10,000 AGL
  • Successive sweeps should be ½ previous track spacing

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check for understanding4
Most track line patterns are flown above 10,000 feet.Check for Understanding

False, 5000 to 10,000 ft. AGL is the normal altitude for most Track Line Patterns

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check for understanding5
The maximum altitude for receiving an ELT signal is the best for making an electronic search.Check for Understanding

False

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check for understanding6
On second and third sweeps during a track line search, the track spacing should be one-third of the preceding sweep.Check for Understanding

False

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check for understanding7
The search procedures should be continued until the survivors are found or the batteries are presumed dead.Check for Understanding

True

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section 3 homing searches
Section 3: Homing Searches
  • Objective:
  • Define homing and discuss the meaning of the actions of the left-right needle in a directional finding unit during a homing search.

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elt homing game
ELT Homing Game

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check for understanding8
What does “homing” mean?Check for Understanding

Tracking a signal from a distance point to its source.

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check for understanding9
What does a centered left-right needle of a directional finding unit mean in the homing search method?Check for Understanding

You are heading directly to or away from the signal source.

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check for understanding10
How can you tell if you are flying directly toward or away from a signal picked up on the DF unit?Check for Understanding

Make a 90 degree turn and observe the direction of the needle in relationship to the planes orientation.

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check for understanding11
How does the left-right needle indicate to you that you have just crossed over the target?Check for Understanding

You will notice a full scale swing form side to side.

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check for understanding12
If you have been steadily on the signal in a homing search and the needle suddenly drifts to one side and returns to the center, what does this indicate?Check for Understanding

Interfering signal

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section 4 signal null method
Section 4: Signal Null Method
  • Objective:
  • Discuss the basis for the null search method, the equipment needed, the procedure itself, and the special considerations in this type of search.

Level II Technician Rating

2 assumptions
2 Assumptions
  • Metal wing will block the incoming ELT signal during steep turns
  • Two or more receptions will provide vectors locating the ELT

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null procedures
Null Procedures

Altitude 6000 to 9000’ AGL

NULL

NULL Vector

Target

Path of Aircraft

Reduce Altitude

NULL

NULL

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check for understanding13
The signal null method is based on what two assumptions?Check for Understanding
  • Metal wing will block ELT Signal during a steep turn.
  • Two or more receptions will provide vectors locating the ELT.

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check for understanding14
What special equipment is needed for this method?Check for Understanding

A special antenna properly located.

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check for understanding15
What does it mean to say “the signal will null”?Check for Understanding

The signal will break or momentarily stop.

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check for understanding16
How many degrees are added to or subtracted from a null signal reading for it to be accurate in locating downed aircraft?Check for Understanding

90 degrees

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check for understanding17
When the approximate location has been determined and the search craft has descended to obtain visual contact, how is the crew able to pinpoint the location within a small area?Check for Understanding

More “nulls” and visually

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check for understanding18
What are four special considerations in making a signal null search?Check for Understanding
  • Crew competent in 360 degree turns.
  • Knowledge of search aircraft position when null occurs.
  • When signal is lost-go to last location null occurs.
  • Approach wreck area with caution.

Level II Technician Rating

section 5 aural searches
Section 5:Aural Searches
  • Objective:
  • Define “aural” and discuss the assumption on which aural searches are based, standard volume during a search, and the problem in pinpointing downed aircraft using this method.

Level II Technician Rating

aural search method
Aural Search method

Area of equal beacon strength is circular – barely audible in A/C receiver at search altitude

Commence Low Alt Pattern

Decending

SF

SH

Chord 2

SF

Chord 1

Chord 3

SH

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check for understanding19
The aural search is based on what assumption?Check for Understanding

Area of equal beacon strength is circular

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check for understanding21
Of what value is maintaining standard volume during an aural search?Check for Understanding

Ensures the signal “heard” and “fade” positions will remain constant.

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check for understanding22
Why are the calculations on pinpointing the location of ELT units only approximate in aural searches?Check for Understanding

In actuality, areas of equal signal strength are seldom circular.

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section 6 metered search
Section 6: Metered Search
  • Objective:
  • Complete statements concerning the metered search method of locating downed aircraft.

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metered searches

8.0 Fades

1.0

6.0

2.0

2.0

4.0

8.0 Fades

6.0

First Signal / 8.0

Metered Searches

ELT

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check for understanding23
The meter, in a metered search, measures ____ _____ _______.Check for Understanding

ELT Signal Strength

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check for understanding24
To be effective, the metered search must locate two positions where the signals are of _____ _____ _______.Check for Understanding

Equal Signal Strength

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check for understanding25
The metered search is carried out by the pilot making turns primarily of ____ degrees until enough information is gathered to plot the location of the downed aircraft.Check for Understanding

180

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section 7 general conclusions
Section 7: General Conclusions
  • Objective:
  • Complete statements concerning various general conclusions about electronic search methods.

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check for understanding26
Electronic searches are most efficient when _________, ___________, and ________ are ideal.Check for Understanding

Equipment environment terrain

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check for understanding27
One big problem for search teams for a long time has been ________________.Check for Understanding

Signal Reflections

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check for understanding28
During mountainous searches, the pattern should be flown _________ to the valley ridges first, then _____________ to them.Check for Understanding

Parallel Perpendicular

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check for understanding29
In looking at a problem in an electronic search, consider equipment reliability, direction finding procedures, and _______ as possible trouble sources.Check for Understanding

terrain

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