Tone in Cushitic. Maarten Mous Leiden University. Stress languages. [-tone, +stress] Highland East Cushitic: K’abeena, Sidamo. K’abeena. ultimate or penultimate syllable has stress (depending on final vowel whispered or not) correlation between stress/whispered final vowel and word class
Maarten MousLeiden University
Underlying accent system with tonal realisation Banti (1988)
Absolutive on the ultimate or penultimate mora: underlying accent.
Genitive: accentual pattern of ultimate accent
Nominative allomorphs involving adding an (empty) mora to the end.
Accent language underlyingly
Realised as tone with downdrift
Domain of high tone is phrase.
High tone on one syllable in first word of NP
High tone on one last 3 syllables of that word.
H on accented syllable of that word (only minority of words have an accent); if there is no accented syllable H on final (default)
Banti Two Cushitic systems.pdf
Tonal minimal lexical pairs through name giving strategy in Iraqw.
konkomó ‘insect species’
hlooró ‘locust species’
doomu ‘rainy season’
doomú personal name
axweesó personal name
Gender distinction through tone in the Sam languages: Rendille (Oomen 1981: 43-44)
ínam (m) ‘boy’ inám (f) ‘girl’
áram (m) ‘husband’ arám (f) ‘wife’
árab (m) ‘elephant’ aráb (f) ‘elephants’
láhhaw (m) ‘stick’ lahháw (f) ‘stick’
Final high tone is a relic of a feminine suffix –et which cause the penultimate tone to move:
ínam-et > inámet > ináme > inám ‘girl’.
Somali accentual patterns or melodies Saeed (1999: 42):
Cushitic in general: High tones on bare nouns are on ultimate or penultimate tone bearing unit.
hín focus marker hin negation marker
Adpositional particles have high tone: lá ‘with’, kú ‘in’
but adverbial clitics are toneless: wada ‘together’ and kala ‘apart’
Iraqw demonstrative and possessive suffixes are high; specific indefinite suffixes toneless; personal pronouns high.
Series of high tones:
gajéér-’éé-dá-r ‘isawork-my-that-of yesterday
‘that work of mine of yesterday’.
if more than 1 high than in morphological complex word
Occasionally two movements:
Somali: gúrigíi ‘the house (remote)’ (Saeed 1999: 43). Penultimate high plus high tones definite suffix.
Arbore: Arbore lúkku-t-ásut ‘his hens’ (Hayward 1984: 99). Penultimate high plus high tone possessive suffix.
Oromo (Owens 1985: 93-95)
k’ot-am- k’ot-ám-áa ‘cultivated’(m)
k’ot-am- k’ot-ám-túu ‘cultivated’(f)
Beja first-singular possessive is only a low tone and the third-person possessive only a high tone in the underlying form (Appleyard 1991: 7, based on Hudson 1976).
Beja (Hudson 1976: 101-102)
Somali (Saeed 1999: 43).
Beja (Hudson 1976: 101-102):
high tone of the root suppresses the accent of the past tense suffix ‑`a