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Mindset: Recent motor behavior research applied to volleyball Nels Rydberg, MS Assistant Coach University of Portland
Preview • Background Information • Motor Behavior Research • Focus of Attention • Choose your words carefully • Observational Learning • Two for the price of one • Mindset • What are they thinking? • Ideas and Questions
Background Information • Motor behavior research • Learning vs performance • Retention test • Open vs closed skills • Generalizability • Transfer test • Volleyball skills
Focus of Attention • Internal focus: on body movements • External focus: on the movement effect • Not related to visual focus Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sportand Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 77-104. Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Focus of Attention • Initial findings Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of Motor Behavior, 30, 169-179. • Pressure exerted on platform vs feet exerting the pressure • Markers on board horizontal rather than feet horizontal • Retention (and later, transfer) had no instructions, internal or external
Focus of Attention • Movement effectiveness • Accuracy, consistency, balance • Movement efficiency • Muscular activity, force production, cardiovascular responses • Higher skill level is achieved sooner • Benefits performance and learning
Focus of Attention • Measurements • Balance, accuracy, muscular activity, maximum force production, speed and endurance, movement kinematics and kinetics (whole-body coordination patterns optimized) • Tasks • Golf shots, volleyball serve, kicks, free throws, weight lifting, throwing accuracy and form, jumping, sprinting, agility, swimming, rowing
Focus of Attention • “…even a single instructional cue can impact whole-body coordination” (Wulf, 2013, p. 78). • Why does this work? • “Self-invoking trigger” • Negative effects of self-consciousness • Mindset?
Focus of Attention • In your gym • Serving • Target, point of impact on the ball • Passing • Target, trajectory • Blocking • Attacker’s shoulders, points to reach for • Reading and external focus
Focus of Attention Beckmann, J., Gröpel, P., & Ehrlenspiel, F. (2013). Preventing motor skill failure through hemisphere-specific priming: Cases from choking under pressure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 679-691. • In short • Right brain = automated behavior • Squeeze left hand to activate right hemisphere
Observational Practice Shea, C. H., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (1999). Enhancing training efficiency and effectiveness through the use of dyad training. Journal of Motor Behavior, 31, 119-125. Shea, C. H., Wright, D. L., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (2000). Physical and observational practice afford unique learning opportunities. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32(1), 27-36. • Form of mental training • Model does not have to be an expert
Observational Practice • Experiment 1 • Physical vs observational practice • Retention • physical > observational > control • Transfer • physical = observational > control • Better able to apply parameters and strategies
Observational Practice • Experiment 2 • Dyads: “…participants develop some form of interactive relationship during practice…” (Shea, et al., 2000, p. 34) • Physical vs combined (physical and observational) practice • Acquisition • Physical = combined • Retention • Physical = combined > control
Observational Practice • Physical vs combined (cont.) • Transfer • Combined > physical > control • Physical deteriorated in transfer, combined did not • Possible explanations • What worked vs what did not • Mental processing that cannot be done during physical practice • Social interactions including motivation and social comparison • Mindset?
Observational Practice • Benefits and application • Increased learning efficiency • Space, equipment, time • Decreased fatigue and chance of injury/overuse • Effective use of rest intervals • Teach your players to observe each other • Design drills that facilitate observational learning
Observational Practice Granados, C., & Wulf, G. (2007). Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: Contributions of observation and dialogue. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 78(3), 197-203. • Observational practice enhanced learning regardless of dialogue
Mindset • More specifically • Enhanced expectancies • Conceptions of ability • Self-confidence • Social-cognitive • Positive affect • Intrinsic motivation
Mindset • Self-Determination Theory (SDT) Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. http://www.selfdeterminationtheory.org/ • Basic needs • Autonomy, competence, relatedness • Intrinsic motivation, positive affect
Mindset • Feedback after successful trials • Increased intrinsic motivation and self-confidence • Catch someone doing something well and tell them about it • Trip on the curb, shank one pass Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2002). Self-controlled feedback: Does it enhance learning because performers get feedback when they need it? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 408-415.
Mindset Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2011). Feedback after good trials enhances intrinsic motivation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 360-364. Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Namazizadeh, M., & Wulf, G. (2012). Feedback after good versus poor trials: Differential effects on self-confidence and activation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(2), 196-203.
Mindset • Acquirable skill > inherent ability • Incremental theorists > entity theorists Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2009). Conceptions of ability affect motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 41(5), 461-467. • Normative feedback • “Above average” performance Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2010). Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning. QuarterlyJournal of Experimental Psychology, 63(4), 738-749.
Mindset • Performance under pressure • Throwing accuracy McKay, B., Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2012). Enhanced expectancies improve performance under pressure. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00008
Mindset Experienced, trained athletes Increased physiological efficiency Stoate, I., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Enhanced expectancies improve movement efficiency in runners. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(8), 815-823.
Mindset • Why? • Automaticity vs conscious control processes • How? • Instructions or feedback should focus on learners’ improvements or effort invested in practice • Ideas? • Feedback after good trials • Self-controlled feedback • Establish the proper mindset
Review • Background Information • Motor Behavior Research • Focus of Attention • Choose your words carefully • Observational Learning • Two for the price of one • Mindset • What are they thinking? • Ideas and Questions
Mindset • Sharing of ideas • Focus of attention • Observational practice • Mindset • Questions
Thank you! Nels Rydberg firstname.lastname@example.org