The Grain Growers Associations 1905-17. Elevator capacity and services were a problem throughout this period A plan was proposed by the Manitoba Grain Growers Association The proposal was known as the ‘Partridge Plan’. Partridge Plan. Government ownership of Canadian grain elevators
~ 1882-91 there was a dramatic increase in beef exports to Britain causing an expansion of the ranching frontier.
~Ranching became an extremely profitable at this time because of the abundance of land at low rental rates.
~This expansion of the frontier led to the creation of large Cattle Companies.
~The first one in Canada was known as the Cochrane Ranch company. The company attracted share holders with both wealth and power.
~ Other companies similar in design were:
North West Cattle Co. ~now known as Bar U
Winder Ranche Co.
Stewart Ranch Co.
Oxely Ranch Co.
~ With the creation of large cattle companies the smaller rancher began to experience the overcrowding of the industry
-small ranchers were being driven out as large ranchers simply turned their herds out onto the open range, then when they collected them they would sometimes collect not only their own but the small ranchers as well.
~ This led to the creation of the Cattle Association
Which dealt with:
-branding, grazing rights
-transportation and government land policy
~ Formed in 1882 the Pincher Creek Stock Association stood as the first of its kind in western Canada. It encompased a very large area from Pincher Creek all of the way to High River. It was an association centered out of Fort Macleod.
~ Cattle associations at first had a very well rounded representation even from the small ranchers but later it became an organization of the companies.
~In 1886 the Canadian North-West Territories Stock Association grew out of the SW stock association.
-voting scheme based on herd size
-and also dealt with concerns over settlers pushing them out
-they also stood as a mechanism to solve the contentious
issue of ‘Mavricks’
~Stood as the first association to claim to represent the whole whole community.
~ There was a growing competition with sheep farmers in the area as cattle ranchers tried to prevent their entry.
~ Sheep could compete with cattle because of their capability to graze on the shorter grasses.
~ The biggest competition however stood as the settlers entering the area.
As ranchers chased the settlers off of their leased land the settlers revolted and even took up arms but also sent petitions to Ottawa.
~ This created a political dilemma:
Settlement Vs. Very profitable ranch leases
~ Ranchers had a political hand however, with significant exports of live cattle, Ottawa was reminded that the western plains 1st interest was stock-raising not cereal production.
~As long as profits off of grazing exceeded those of farming, intruding farm population could be held at bay.
~ From 1892-96 marked a time of bitter feuds between ranchers and settlers/farmers.
~The government however backed the ranchers, while in other parts of the nation public pressures were mounting because the policy was stalling settlement in the west.
~Due to this pressure on Oct. 12, 1892 the government changed its stance on protecting leased lands. Reducing the leased numbers for each of the ranches, however this was just eliminating the speculative leases.
~With this decrease, came an advantage to the ranchers. They gained an extension of the regions stock-watering reserves (areas where settlement could not occur along springs, creeks, and river bottoms)
~This again led to more unrest and evictions, but the department considered the south-west to be more suited towards cattle ranching than farming. Also helping towards this was the solidarity of cattlemen, socially, politically, and economically.
~After 1896 brought the end of the era of the cattleman. This was due to the westward push put on by the farming frontier. The major steps that made farming and settlement impossible to stop included:
~1896 Liberal Government came to power.
-looked less favorably on ranching compared to farming and settlement
-this greatly reduced the influence the ranchers had in
~As settlers and farmers moved westward and began to produce profitable crops the ranchers lost their argument that the land was only suitable for grazing.
~In 1897 Crow’s Nest Pass Statutory Freight Rates on grain were established. This favoured grain farming and excluded ranching. This caused an increase in colonization.
~Large Cattle Companies began to struggle to survive. Following the creation of Alberta and Saskatchewan it was known the settlement issues would never go away
~Feb.1905 Frank Oliver, being opposed to ranchers, became Minister of the Department of the Interior.
~he was more inclined to the view of the west in terms of what had come to be known as the ‘mixed farm’
~This vision was accompanied by the parallel stereotype of the monopolistic cattle baron.
-member of a landed and reactionary establishment standing in the way of settlement and ‘progress’
~Beginning in 1905 Oliver began to eliminate the stock watering reserves, thus again giving a blow to the ranchers.
~The final blow came in the winter of 1906-1907. With severe weather, cattle could not graze outside and ranchers herds were thus decreased by 5-85%.
~Dominion Range Commissioner estimated an overall loss of 50%
~This gave ascendancy to mixed farming and ranching never regained its former glory.
…I dare ya!