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Cell & animal reproduction. Grade 6 Compiled by: Alya Kays. Plants reproduction. Animal Cell. The body is made up of millions of tiny cells Most of the cell is made up of protoplasm Cell parts: Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane. Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cell Membrane. Animal Cell. SHAPE.

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Cell & animal reproduction

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cell animal reproduction

Cell & animal reproduction

Grade 6

Compiled by: Alya Kays

animal cell
Animal Cell
  • The body is made up of millions of tiny cells
  • Most of the cell is made up of protoplasm
  • Cell parts:
    • Nucleus
    • Cytoplasm
    • Cell membrane
animal cell5



Cell Membrane

Animal Cell
  • Plant cell is rectangular in shape.
  • Animal cell is spherical in shape.
Plant cells


cell wall
  • Plant cell is covered by a thick cell wall.
  • Cell wall is made up of cellulose and hemicellulose.
  • Animal cell is covered by a thin cell membrane.
  • It is made up of Lipoprotein.
  • In plant cell, Vacuole is big, prominent and permanent.
  • In animal cell, Vacuole is small, temporary and not so prominent.
  • Plastids are present only in plant cell.
  • Plastids are of three types.
  • *Leucoplast
  • *Chromoplast
  • *Chloroplast
red blood cells
Red blood cells
  • Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are the primary carriers of oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body. The biconcave shape of the erythrocyte is an adaptation for maximizing the surface area across which oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Its shape and flexible plasma membrane allow the erythrocyte to penetrate the smallest of capillaries.

Human smooth muscle, also referred to as visceral or involuntary muscle, is composed of slender, spindle-shaped cells. Controlled by the autonomic nervous system, smooth muscle cells help form the structure of the skin, blood vessels, and internal organs.


Cardiac muscle is a unique muscle tissue found only in the heart. Requiring a constant supply of oxygen, cardiac muscle will quickly die if obstructions occur in the arteries leading to the heart. Heart attacks occur from the damage caused by insufficient blood supply to cardiac muscle.


Skeletal muscles attach to bones. They help you do things such as kick a ball, chew food, or write. When one of these muscles contracts, or shortens, the bone attached to the muscle moves. Skeletal muscles are voluntary—that is, you control when they work. Skeletal muscles consist of cells containing light and dark bands that make them appear striped.


Nerve cell:

This photomicrograph shows a number of multipolar nerve cells. The central cell body is clearly visible in each of the cells, as are the dendrites. The dendrites are short extensions of the nerve cell body that

function in


reception of


epithelial cells
Epithelial Cells
  • The epithelium is a protective layer of cells that covers an organ surface or lines a body cavity. Shown here is a layer of simple squamous (scaly) epithelium. Skin is composed of several layers of epithelial cells.
bone cell
Bone cell


cell division
Cell Division
  • Mitosis
    • Increases total number of cells
    • Results in animal growth
    • Chromosomes pairs are duplicated
cell division22
Cell Division
  • Meiosis
    • Produces gametes
    • Only have one-half the chromosomes of normal cells
reproductive terminology
Reproductive Terminology
  • Species Act Offspring
  • Cows calving calf
  • Ewes lambing lamb
  • Sows farrowing pig
  • Hens hatching chick
  • Mares foaling foal
  • Goats kidding kid
  • Frog hatching tadpole
mammals reproduction

Mammals Reproduction

Objective: Specify how the reproductive system for mammals functions

  • Estrus
    • When a female is receptive to be bred
  • Lactation
    • Period of time that milk is secreted by the mammary glands
  • Parturition
    • Than act of giving birth
reproductive functions of the female
Reproductive Functions of the Female

Estrous cycle - time from one heat period (or menstrual cycle) to the next.

Length of estrous cycle by species:

Cow 19 - 21 days

Ewe 16 - 17 days

Sow 19 - 21 days

Mare 21 - 24 days

Woman 28 days

Hen none

female reproductive system
Female Reproductive System
  • Ovary - the ovary is comparable to the male testicle and is the site of gamete production.
    • A bovine animal has 20,000 potential eggs per ovary, while a human female has 400,000 potential eggs per ovary.
    • Ova are fully developed at puberty and are not continuously produced as in the male.
    • All species contain two functional ovaries except for the hen which has only a left functioning ovary.
female reproductive system32
Female Reproductive System
  • Uterine Horn- The anterior, divided end of the uterus in the cow, ewe, and mare. Sow has only 2 horns, no body, woman has no horns, only body.
  • Uterus - Muscular sac connecting fallopian tubes and cervix

1. Sustains the sperm and aids in its transport

2. Supports embryo and fetus during gestation

3. Expels fetus at parturition

reproductive functions female
Reproductive Functions (Female)

Steps in the female reproductive process:

1. Ovulation

  • Produce gamete (ova or ovum)
  • Release of egg(s)
  • Infundibulum pushes the ovum into the fallopian tube
ovulation rates
Ovulation Rates

Ovulation Rates by Species

Cow- 1 egg per estrus

Ewe- 1 to 3 eggs per estrus

Sow- 10 to 20 eggs per estrus

Mare- 1 egg per estrus

Hen- Approx. 28 eggs per month

  • When the sperm from a male reaches the egg from a female
  • Two cells join to form a complete cell
  • Pairs of chromosomes are formed again
  • Many different combinations of traits are formed
reproductive functions female39
Reproductive Functions (Female)

Gestation and Lactation Periods:

Species Gestation Period Lactation(Milking)

Cow 275 - 285 days beef 180 - 270 days dairy 305 - 365 days

Ewe 115 - 142 days 60 - 90 - 120 days

Sow 112 - 115 days 21 - 42 days

Mare 330 - 345 days 90 - 150 days

Woman 270 days ? years

reproduction in poultry


Reproduction in Poultry

Objective: Specify how the reproductive system for poultry functions

reproduction in poultry46
Reproduction in Poultry

The poultry oviduct has five parts:

1) Vagina

  • Holds the egg until laid

2) Uterus

  • Secretes the shell

3) Isthmus

  • Adds the two shell membranes

4) Magnum

  • Secretes the albumen

5) Infundibulum

  • Where fertilization takes place
reproduction in poultry50
Reproduction in Poultry
  • Major difference:
    • Embryo of livestock develop inside the female’s body while the embryo of poultry develops inside the egg.
  • Poultry only have the left ovary and oviduct when mature
  • The yoke is the ovum
  • Chicken Incubation
    • 21 days

1- A butterfly starts its life as an egg, laid by a female adult butterfly after mating. Butterfly eggs vary in size and shape, but most are surrounded by a protective hard shell.

2- A caterpillar develops within the egg and then eats its way out of the shell.


4- A caterpillar spends all its time eating. As it grows, the caterpillar becomes too large for its skin and molts (sheds its skin) to reveal new skin. Depending upon the type of butterfly, caterpillars molt four or five times.

  • 3- When the caterpillar reaches its final size it stops feeding. The caterpillar wriggles and twists to gradually remove its old skin, revealing a new protective skin called the chrysalis.

5-Inside the chrysalis, the caterpillar changes from a wormlike creature into an adult butterfly.

6-When the butterfly reaches adulthood, it leaves the chrysalis. It pumps blood into its crumpled wings and expands them to their full size before flying away.

  • Metamorphosis is the changes that a frog goes through during its life cycle.
  • There are four main stages in the life cycle of the frog.
  • The first stage in the life cycle of the frog is the egg.
  • A frog lays many eggs at one time.
  • The eggs are covered with a jellylike coating.
  • The second stage of the frog life cycle is the tadpole.
  • Hatched tadpoles have gills for breathing in the water.
  • They have a tail, but no legs.

As a tadpole grows, lungs begin to form.

  • Back and front legs begin to grow. These parts allow the adult frog to live on land.
adult frog
Adult Frog
  • Once the lungs form and begin to work, the gills and tail disappear.
  • The adult frog is now ready to live on land.

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