Hun Shik KimJournalism and Mass Communication Broadcast Journalism: Past, Present and Future
History of Broadcasting • 1920 Radio broadcasting began. KDKA. • 1922 BBC. 1926 CBS. 1927 NBC. 1945 ABC. • Television was developed by numerous engineers and inventors • 1936 BBC Television broadcast • 1940s Live war reporting from London • Live from London Edward Murrow
History of Broadcasting • 1950s Television became more lucrative medium than radio • 1953 Color TV broadcasting began • 1960s Network evening news was expanded to 30 minutes • JFK assassination report-CBS Cronkite
Regulations on Broadcasting • Government regulates broadcasting—licensing • Due to “scarcity” of radio-frequency, broadcasting is subject to greater regulation than print media. • Broadcast news media tend to have more conservative editorial stance than print media
Print vs. Broadcasting Newspaper Broadcasting Delayed reporting Immediacy, live capability Still images, graphics Audio, video Complex writing Conversational writing Longer stories Shorter stories
Print vs. Broadcast Newswriting • Boulder, CO (AP)—Drinking five or more cups of coffee a day appears to increase a person’s chances of developing lung cancer, according to a researcher who says his study is the first to target coffee alone. “This is the first time that coffee has been implicated by itself as a factor in lung cancer,” Dr. Leonard Schuman, an epidemiologist at the University of Colorado, said Friday. “Smoking alone increase the risk of cancer tenfold,” Schuman said. But men who smoked a pack or more a day and drank five or more cups of coffee had a rate of lung cancer 40 times higher than men who neither smoked nor drank coffee. Other studies will be needed to determine if the finding represents a cause-and-effect relationship, or is just a fluke finding from one statistical study, Schuman said.
Print vs. Broadcast Newswriting • A new study says anyone who drinks five cups of coffee a day or more may increase the chances of developing cancer. University of Colorado scientist Doctor Leonard Schuman says his study is the first to implicate coffee by itself. He also says the combined effects of drinking too much coffee and smoking may be worse. But Schuman says investigators must do more research to confirm if drinking too much coffee really causes lung cancer.
Americans get their news from… • Local TV station 78% • National network 73% • News online 61% • Radio program 54% • Local newspaper 50% • National newspaper 17% Pew Research Center (2010)
Where People Got Their News Yesterday 20082012 Change(%) Television 57 55 -2 Online/Mobile 29 39 +10 Radio 35 33 -2 Newspaper 34 29 -5 Pew Research Center (2012)
Watched Any TV News Yesterday 20062012 Change(%) Total 57 55 -2 18-29 49 34 -15 30-49 53 52 -1 50-64 63 65 +2 65+ 69 73 +4 Pew Research Center (2012)
ABC News World News Now 4-16-2013 • Last of fighting Grossman • NBC Today Teleprompter
Key Players in the TV Newsroom • News director • Producer • Assignment editor • Photographer/ photojournalist • Video editor • Anchor • Reporter • Video/backpack journalist • Multimedia journalist • Web content coordinator
Daily News Schedule • The day may begin as early as 11 p.m. for the next day’s morning newscast. • Assignment editors, producers, reporters and news directors are busy throughout the day: • Morning newscast (4-9 a.m.) • Noon newscasts (11:30 a.m. -1 p.m.) • Evening news (4-6:30 p.m.) • Late evening news (10-11:30 p.m.) • Breaking news may require everyone to work around the clock.
News Team Boulder Online • News Team Boulder--Online
Backpack Journalism • Started in mid-1990s at New York Times • “Bottom-line journalism” Cheaper to send one VideoJournalist (VJ) than a TV crew to long-distance news scenes • Effective training for print journalists (writers + photographers) to use small digital video cameras • Encouraged TV stations to do more national & international news coverage • Becky Diamond
Kevin Sites-Yahoo VJ in the Hot Zone • Kevin Sites in the Hot Zone • Kevin Sites in Sri Lanka-2008
Backpack Journalist in Iraq Kirk Spitzer (2003)
Contemporary TV News Issues • Economic recession and downsizing • Media ownership • Media convergence • News as entertainment • Image-driven news content • Politics in sound bites
Changing news environments (3Ps) • Portable • Personalized • Participatory
Future of Broadcasting • Convergence and multimedia news environment will change the face, heart and guts of TV newsrooms over the next 10 years Chicago Tribune NewsroomBoston Globe • In a converged newsroom, journalists produce stories for television, newspapers and online • More job opportunities for young journalists with multimedia storytelling techniques • KUSA (Ch9), KMGH (Ch7)—VJ squad