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Biology STAAR Review

Biology STAAR Review

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Biology STAAR Review

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  1. Biology STAAR Review Session 7 : Living Systems

  2. Housekeeping •WELCOME!!!! •NO EATING OR DRINKING ALLOWED IN THE AUDITORIUM •Put away your phones and any other distractions •Have a pen & a highlighter handy

  3. Circulatory/Cardiovascular System Function: delivers nutrients, water, hormones and oxygen to the body’s cells Major Structures: aorta, capillaries, heart, arteries, veins

  4. Digestive System Function: breaks down food for energy and nutrient absorption Major Structures: esophagus, gallbladder, large and small intestine, liver, mouth, pancreas, rectum, stomach

  5. Endocrine System Function: secretes hormones which control and regulate many of the body’s processes Major Structures:adrenal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid

  6. Excretory System Function: filters blood and eliminates waste Major Structures: bladder, kidney, ureter, urethra

  7. Integumentary System Function: covers and protects the body - first line of defense Major Structures: dermis, epidermis, oil gland, sweat gland

  8. Muscular System Function: works with the skeletal system for movement of the body Major Structures: cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle

  9. Nervous System Function: regulates body activity by sending and receiving electrical impulses Major Structures: brain, spinal cord, nerves, axon

  10. Reproductive System Function: production of gametes and development of new organism Major Structures: ovaries, testes, gonads, uterus

  11. Respiratory System Function: to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen Major Structures: alveoli, bronchi, diaphragm, larynx, trachea

  12. Skeletal System Function: provides support and protection as well as to work with muscles Major Structures: bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons

  13. Interaction for Defense • Circulatory • deliver, transport, circulate, pump • Integumentary • protective barrier, sweat, first line of defense • Immune • inflammatory, antibody, antigen • Respiratory • mucus, breathe, oxygen, carbon dioxide

  14. Interaction for Regulation • Nervous • neuron, electrical signals • Endocrine • glands, hormones • Excretory • filter, remove liquid waste, urine • Lymphatic • remove waste from tissues, lymph

  15. Interaction for Reproduction • Circulatory • deliver, transport, circulate, pump • Endocrine • hormones, chemical signal, glands • Nervous • nerves, electrical signal, control • Reproductive • gonads, ovary, testis, sex cell, gametes

  16. Interaction for Absorption • Circulatory • transport, circulate, pump • Digestive • ingest, absorb, peristalsis • Muscular • contraction, relaxation, movement

  17. Example #1 In male mice, it has been shown that the bones are critical to the maturity of the gonads. The bones release a hormone osteocalcin, which helps the gonads produce more testosterone. The reverse is also true. Without healthy gonads mice showed weaker skeletons. The need for a strong skeleton in animal defense is critical.

  18. Example #2 Calcium is critical in the sending and receiving of electrical signals, pumping of the heart, and releasing hormones. The storage of calcium is found in bones. The inability to store calcium leads to many complications.

  19. Practice STAAR Questions

  20. Which of the following correctly describes an interaction that occurs between two body systems of a rabbit that helps the rabbit outrun a pursuing coyote? • The skeletal system releases additional calcium, and the circulatory system retains more sodium in the blood to provide muscles with ions for contraction. b. The digestive system increases the rate of digestion, and the excretory system ceases to provide tissues with more nutrients. c. The respiratory system increases the breathing rate, and the circulatory system increases blood pressure to provide tissues with more oxygen. d. The endocrine system releases hormones that prepare the immune system to deal with possible injuries.

  21. What two human systems work together to provide body cells with a constant supply of oxygen while removing carbon dioxide waste products? A Nervous and endocrine B Muscular and skeletal C Respiratory and circulatory D Excretory and integumentary

  22. Coracias garrulus is a blue bird with an orange-brown back. The offspring of this bird have an effective defense mechanism. The young birds vomit and cover themselves in a foul-smelling orange liquid when they sense a threat by predators. Which two systems alert the young bird to the danger and help produce the vomit it uses as a defense? A Nervous and digestive systems B Integumentary and muscular systems C Immune and respiratory systems D Excretory and reproductive systems

  23. Health-care workers are exposed to many different types of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms. Which body systems work together to protect the body from pathogens? A Muscular and cardiovascular B Digestive and excretory C Circulatory and immune D Endocrine and reproductive

  24. Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophic Cellulose

  25. Plant Body Systems Roots- absorb water and nutrients Shoots (Vascular)- transport water and nutrients Reproductive- create new organisms (meiosis)

  26. Transport in Plants: Vascular Tissue Xylem- Transports water from roots to leaves Phloem- Transports glucose from leaf to root

  27. Plant Responses- TROPISMS Phototropism- plant leans toward light Hydrotropism- plant responds to water

  28. Plant Responses- TROPISMS Thigmotropism- plant responds to touch (Gravi) Geotropism- roots down, shoots up

  29. Flower Reproductive Parts

  30. Practice STAAR Questions

  31. Plant hormones serve as chemical messengers between cells and tissues. Auxin is a plant hormone that causes the cells on the shady side of a plant shoot to elongate. The response enabled by auxin is known as — • geotropism • transpiration • phototropism • photosynthesis

  32. What is the most likely benefit of this mechanism for the plant? A Protection from a loss of minerals to the environment B Protection from poor light availability C Protection from herbivores by becoming less attractive D Protection from overwatering

  33. The outermost layer of plant stems in dicotyledons consists of epidermal cells and guard cells that surround openings called stomata. The epidermal cells are usually covered with a waterproof layer that provides protection from injury and water loss. The stomata allow gas exchange. The epidermal cells and stomata have functions similar to those of which two human body systems? • Skeletal and respiratory • Circulatory and skeletal • Integumentary and respiratory • Circulatory and integumentary

  34. Leaves are part of a plant’s shoot system. The xylem tissue in leaves transports — A the bacteria needed for nitrogen fixation in root nodules B the wax required to coat the surface of actively growing tissue C the water and minerals that are absorbed by the roots D the oxygen that regulates the rate of carbohydrate production

  35. Evolution and Classification

  36. Natural Selection: Organisms survive due to a favorable adaptation

  37. Mechanisms of Evolution

  38. Dichotomous Key

  39. Practice STAAR Questions

  40. The Linnaean taxonomic system classifies organisms into divisions called taxa. If two organisms belong to the same taxonomic group, they are related. Similarity at which of these levels indicates the closest relationship? 1 Kingdom 2 Class 3 Order 4 Genus

  41. Bactrian camels, dromedaries, llamas, and alpacas are all members of the same taxonomic family, Camelidae. Members of this family all have two toes, no hooves, true canine teeth, and a split upper lip. The family Camelidae originated in North America. The physical features of animals in this family and the family’s geographical origin provide evidence that all these animals — 1 live in the same type of ecosystem 2 have slowly evolved to become herbivores 3 have a common ancestor 4 exchanged DNA at some point in the past

  42. Fur • claws or nails • Lungs • jaws

  43. STAAR Reminders • Take your time • Use your strategies • Watch out for NOT questions • 83% Goal • Double check your bubbles • Do your very best • You can do it!!!

  44. Thanks for attending today’s review. -Clean up your area. -Check for all your belongings. -Get a stamp as you exit. -Make good choices.