Geographic Regions of Georgia SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location. b. Describe the five geographic regions of Georgia; include the Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, Appalachian Plateau, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain. c. Locate and evaluate the importance of key physical features on the development of Georgia; include the Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian Mountains, Chattahoochee and Savannah Rivers, and barrier islands. SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Georgia in different historical periods.
Warm-Up Compare and Contrast these pictures. What do these pictures tell you about the different physiogeographic regions of Georgia?
Terms to Know: • Physiogeographic • Region • Precipitation • Wetland • Barrier Island • Continental Shelf • Fall Line
Georgia has 5 physiogeographic regions. • Appalachian Plateau • Ridge and Valley • Blue Ridge • Piedmont • Coastal Plain The characteristics of each region make unique contributions to our state.
Appalachian Plateauaka: Cumberland Plateau/ TAG corner • Our smallest physiogeographic region • From Lookout Mt. to Sand Mt. with ridges of limestone & a long narrow valley in between • Soil of limestone, shale & sandstone = hardwoods and pastureland • Our only significant coal deposits.
Ridge and Valley • Lower elevation than Appalachian Plateau • Low open valleys and narrow ridges • Soil good for forests, pastures, and crops such as grain and apples (Ellijay) • Industry includes textiles and carpet (Dalton is the carpet capital of the world)
Blue Ridge • Highest mts. in the state including Brasstown Bald- Georgia’s highest point. • Provides water for the entire state through precipitation from trapping warm moist Gulf air • Sandy loam and clay soil good for hardwoods, vegetable farming and apples • Beginning of Appalachian Trail, home to Amicalola Falls, Tallulah Gorge, and Helen • See it while you can. Erosion continues to wear down the height of the mountains.
Blue Ridge Images Brasstown Bald: You can see 3 states from this point. Can you name them? Amicalola Falls Helen, Georgia has a strong German influence. Why do you think that is? How does the town of Helen contribute to our state? Ga. Fruits & Vegetables
Piedmont: “Foot of the mountain” • Begins in the mountain foothills of N. Georgia and goes to the central part of the state. • You live in the Piedmont region. • Granite based foundation (What’s our largest granite outcropping?) • Soil is sandy loam and red clay suitable for growing hardwoods, pine, and agriculture. • Cotton belt before the Civil War, now wheat, soybeans, corn, poultry, and cattle. • Some of the most densely populated cities and crossed by Chattahoochee, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Oconee rivers.
Piedmont Images Georgia’s Flint River starts in Clayton County. Why do you think most of Georgia’s major cities are located in the Piedmont region? Sandy loam and red clay are make good soil for agriculture. Why do you think most of Georgia’s rivers start in the Piedmont region?
Coastal Plain • There are two parts to Georgia’s coastal plain: • The Inner Coastal Plain • The Outer Coastal Plain • Which color do you think represents the Inner Coastal Plain and which color represents the Outer Coastal Plain? Why?
The Inner Coastal Plain • Good supply of underground water • Major agricultural region: Vidalia Onions, peanuts, pecans, and corn • Why do you think President Jimmy Carter was known as “The Peanut Farmer from Georgia” during his campaign?
The Outer Coastal Plain • Soil not good for agriculture but trees provide naval stores and pulp production • Deep harbors and barrier islands also provide for tourism/recreation, fishing industry, and ports for importing/exporting goods. • Location of the earliest visits by explorers, first forts for protection, and Georgia’s first settlements. • Ms. LeMon’s favorite region of Georgia.
Outer Coastal Plain Images Why do you think a British flag flies over Fort Frederica? Trees are used to produce pulp and naval stores. The processed goods are then shipped from our shores. Our shores continue to bring visitors to our state. Early map of Savannah
Other Important Coastal Plain Features • Okefenokee Swamp: • Covers 681 square miles making it the largest swamp in North America • Freshwater wetland (wetland: low-lying land area where water lies close to the surface)
Another type of wetland • Salt Marshes: • A wetland that is influenced by tides • Georgia ranks 4th in the nation in wetland acres A marsh at low tide. The same marsh at high tide.
Georgia’s Barrier Islands“Islands of Gold” • Barrier islands protect the mainland from wind, sand, and water that cause erosion. • Georgia has 18 barrier islands. • These islands are tourist destinations but 2/3 of the land remains wilderness sanctuaries.
Other Georgia Geographic Features • Continental Shelf: • Where the land meets the sea • The Fall Line: • Where hilly land meets the coastal plain • Runs from Columbus through Macon to Augusta • Prevented exploration but provided for settlements