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10. Pest Control

10. Pest Control. Mehwish Farooqi Shireen Naeem Salma Usman. Objectives. Define the major types of Pesticides and describe the pests they are meant to control. Appreciate the benefits of Pest Control Relate some of the problems of pesticide use

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10. Pest Control

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  1. 10. Pest Control Mehwish Farooqi Shireen Naeem Salma Usman

  2. Objectives • Define the major types of Pesticides and describe the pests they are meant to control. • Appreciate the benefits of Pest Control • Relate some of the problems of pesticide use • Explain some alternative methods of Pest control • Discuss pesticide regulation and the special concern about the effects of pesticides on Children.

  3. Questions to be Answered • What is a Pest and what are pesticides,the difference between Biocide, Herbicide, Insecticides and Fungicide? • What is DDT and why was it considered a “ Magic Bullet”? Why was it listed among the “dirty dozen” persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ? • Describe fumigants, botanicals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, and microbial pesticides.

  4. Questions to be Answered • What are endocrine disrupters and why are they dangerous? • Identify 3 major categories of alternatives to synthetic pesticides and their working. • What is IPM, and how is it used in pest control? Questions to be Answered

  5. Questions to be Answered • Why are children more susceptible to pesticides than adults are? • List some ways to reduce dietary exposure to pesticides.

  6. Pests & Pesticides • Pests are organisms that reduce the availability, quality or value of resources useful to humans. • Pesticide is a chemical intended to kill or drive away pests.

  7. Types:Pest Specific Pesticide • Biocide kills a wide range of living organisms. • Herbicides kill plants. • Isectidies kill insects. • Fungicides kill fungi. • Acaricides kill mites,ticks,and spider. • Nematicides kill nematodes (microscopic round worms) • Rodenticides kill rodents. • Avicides kill Birds.

  8. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroeoethane. A synthetic, inexpensive, stable, easily applied, highly effective compound, ideal for crop protection and disease prevention. Magic bullet-less time, more effective. Part of POPs-Dirty Dozen. Banned since 1960 but still in use. DDT

  9. Major Types, 1. Fumigants • Generally small molecules such as carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, ethylenedichloride and others. • Used to sterilize soil and prevent decay or rodent and insects infestation of stored grain. • Extremely dangerous for workers who apply them, use has been banned altogether.

  10. 2. Botanicals • Natural organic pesticides, extracted from plants. • Examples: Nicotine and Nicotinoid alkaloids from tobacco, Rotenone from the roots of deris and cube plants. • All are toxic to insects but nicotine is also toxic to a broad spectrum of organisms including humans. Rotenone is commonly used to kill fish. r

  11. 3. Chlorinated hydrocarbons • Organochlorines:synthetic organic insecticides, inhibit nerve membrane ion transport, block nerve signal transmission. • Fast acting highly toxic in sensitive organisms. • Examples: DDT, Aldrin , Toxaphene, Lindane.

  12. 4. Organophosphates: • Parathion, Malathion, Dichlorvos, (DDVP), (TEPP) are an outgrowth of nerve gas research during World War II. • Inhibit cholinesterase, an enzyme essential for removing excess neurotransmitter from synapses in the peripheral nervous system. • extremely toxic to mammals, birds and fish. • Very dangerous for workers such as grape pickers who often are sent into fields too soon after they have been sprayed.

  13. 5.Carbamates • Urethanes: Carbyl, Aldicarb, Carbofuran (Baygon), Mirex. • Extremely toxic to bees, must be used carefully .

  14. 6. MicrobialPesticides • Living Organisms or Toxins derived from them. • Used in place of pesticides. • Parasitic Wasp such as tiny trichogramma genus attack moth caterpillars and eggs, Lace wings and lady bugs control aphids. • Viral diseases also have been used against specific pests.

  15. Often poison Non-target Species. Rapid and widespread pesticide resistance. Misuse create new pests. Persistent pesticides move long distances. Human health Problems. Pesticide Problems:

  16. EndocrineDisrupters • Chemicals having serious effects on endocrine system, • Disruption of function regulating hormones. • Specifically affect reproductive and Immune system.

  17. Alternatives • Crop Rotation. • Tillage. • Growing crops in Pest Absent areas • Use of Living Organisms (pathogens: viruses, bacteria, fungi) [tomato hornworm, corn rootworm, cabbage loopers, controlled by Bacteria spray]. • IPM.

  18. IPM • Integrated pest management. • Flexible, ecologically based pest control strategy. • Trap Crops.

  19. Often uses mechanical cultivation and techniques, such as Vacuuming bugs off crops as an alternative to chemical application. IPM

  20. Susceptibilityof Children • Consume more food, water, air. • Spend more time in playing on carpets, grass, or in dirt. • More often put their fingers in mouth • Vulnerable to toxic effects due to rapid growth and development.

  21. Reductionof Dietary Exposure • Proper washing and peeling off the fruit/vegetables skin. • Careful storage and Use as soon as possible to ensure freshness. • Cook or bake to breakdown chemical residues. • Eat lower on the food chain, trim the fat. • Grow your own food. • Avoid road side or wild foods

  22. THANKS

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