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Happy Monday!!!

Happy Monday!!!

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Happy Monday!!!

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  1. Happy Monday!!! • Pick up an Agenda on the stand in the front • Turn in your vocab and quarterly reflection • The following students earned an “A” on the test: • Tamir Myranda • Rachel Cardenas Gracie • Rachel Clem Brady • Zaara Sammy • Nicole Ahsan • Kevin G Mike

  2. Age of Jackson and Reform

  3. Election of 1824 • 4 candidates running- All call themselves “Republicans” • Andrew Jackson (Tennessee- wins popular vote but not electoral votes) • John Quincy Adams (Massachusetts) • William Crawford (Georgia- has a stroke, not able to finish) • Henry Clay (Kentucky- Big Loser)

  4. Election 1824 cont. • No clear winner- no majority • 12th Amendment states that the House of Representatives must choose among the top 3 finishers • Clay was the Speaker of the House and in charge of selection- lots of power in his hands • Sided with John Q. Adams • Hates Jackson • JQA was a nationalist and supported the American System • Manipulated the voting and secured JQA as president • Became the Secretary of State • Known as the corrupt bargain • Jackson leaves the party

  5. John Q. Adams as President • Horrible president • Hurt by 3 things: • Corrupt bargain • Doesn’t reward party members with positions • Hatred between Adams and Jackson

  6. Election of 1828 • 2 new parties emerge: • National Republicans (Whigs- Republicans) • Clay, John Q. Adams • Big on nationalism • Throwback to the federalists- Wealthy, pro bank, strong central gov’t, liked business • Democrats • Jackson, Martin Van Buren • Somewhat Jeffersonian- common man, small farmers, city workers • Big on mudslinging: • Adams on Jackson: mother is a prostitute, duels, wife martial scandal • Jackson on Adams: pool tables= gaming tables

  7. Election of 1828 cont. • Before the election the right to vote was limited to wealthy, white, landowning men and most Americans were ok with that • By 1828, most states had dropped the landowning qualification and more men voted- giving Jackson the edge • Political shift away from the conservative eastern seaboard to support from the west and south

  8. Jackson as President • Individualistic, temper • From the west, didn’t go to college • Portrayed as the “common man” but not really- rich, had lots of slaves and land • Suspicious of the federal government rule by the elite • Favored states rights • At times went against Congress and the Sup. Court

  9. Jackson’s spoils system • Spoils System- rewarding political supporters with public office • Jackson used this more than anyone before him • Threw out former appointees and replaced them with his own friends • Fired nearly 10% of federal employees from Adams administration • His friends became his primary advisors, called his “kitchen cabinet” • B/c they slipped into the White House through the Kitchen

  10. Treatment of Native Americans • Most Americans held one of two attitudes towards Indians • Displacement and dispossession • Convert them to Christianity and absorb them into white culture • Since the War of 1812, some southeastern tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek and Chicksaw-”) had begun to adopt White culture • “5 civilized tribes”- lived in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee- all places whites wanted to live

  11. Indian Removal Act 1830 • Jackson was not satisfied with the tribes assimilating (becoming more “white”) • Felt it was unwise to regard the tribes as separate nations within individual states • Would require too many troops to keep the areas free from white settlers • Only solution was to move them west to Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma • Voluntary at first, then they were forcibly removed • More than 100,000 Indians were removed • Bureau of Indian Affairs- established in 1836 to administer relations with NA

  12. Cherokee Nation • Developed certain aspects of society similar to whites • Developed syllabic alphabet and had their own newspaper Cherokee • Had a constitution similar to the U.S. and similar electoral system and an agriculture based economy • Unfortunately sat on valuable land in NE Georgia • Gold discovered in 1829 • Land could be used for cotton • Cherokee right to the land had been recognized in a treaty of 1791 • Many Georgians ignored this

  13. Cherokees Fight Back • Cherokee v. Georgia (1831) • Cherokee tried to stop GA declaration that Cherokee land was null and void • Supreme Court ruled that though Cherokee lacked jurisdiction over land, it was a “domestic dependent, nation” possessing some sovereignty • Still not a foreign nation • Major blow to Cherokee rights as an independent nation

  14. Cherokee Fight Back cont. • Worcester v. Georgia (1832) • Cherokee nation teamed up with Samuel Austin Worcester, a missionary who had been teaching Indians w/o a license • Court would have to recognize a citizen’s right to be heard • John Marshall ruled that GA had no right to regulate the Cherokee nor to invade their lands • Jackson’s Response: “John Marshall has made his decision: let him enforce it if he can” • Cherokee realized their fate when Jackson ignored the Supreme Court

  15. Trail of Tears • 1838- 18,000 Cherokees forcibly removed from their homes and marched 1,000 miles to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) • 4,000 died from malnutrition, exposure, cholera, and harsh treatment • Soldiers forced the march with rifles and bayonets • Robbed and ransacked on the way

  16. Other Native American Fates • 25% of Choctaws died en route to Indian Territory • 3,500 out of 15,000 Creeks died during removal in 1836 • Seminoles forced to merge with Creeks (old enemies) and relocate • Waged war on each other in 2nd Seminole War • 1,500 US soldiers died in the war too

  17. Happy Wednesday!! • Pick up an Agenda on the stand in the front and start working on the warm-up on the back • Turn in your Indian Removal Act Newspaper Article

  18. Age of Jackson and Reform Andrew Jackson- National Bank

  19. Tariff of 1828 • British manufacturers wanted to destroy American competitors by flooding the US market with inexpensive goods after War of 1812 • Congress responds by passing a tariff to protect American industries • Jackson’s VP John C. Calhoun of South Carolina called it a “Tariff of Abomination” • The high tariff on manufactured goods reduced British exports to the US forcing the South to buy more Northern goods (more expensive) • North getting rich at South’s expense

  20. States Rights • Calhoun had long been known as a nationalist but the tariff situation made him switch his views • Calhoun devised a nullification theory which questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in sovereign states • Each sovereign state had the right to reject a federal law that it viewed unconstitutional • Believed that if the fed gov’t refused to allow state to nullify, the states could leave the Union

  21. Webster-Hanye Debate • January 1830- Senator Robert Hayne (SC) v. Daniel Webster (MA) • Hayne supported ability to secede, Webster did not • Everyone wanted to know Jackson’s position- “Our Union it must be preserved”

  22. Calhoun responds • “The Union, next to our liberty, the most dear; may we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the States and distributing equally the benefit and burden of the Union” • Jackson is angry and will not stand for back talk from the states

  23. Peggy Eaton Problem • Wife of Secretary of War-Snubbed by the wives of Jackson’s cabinet member (especially Calhoun's wife) • Jackson stood up for Peggy (remembered how his wife was treated) • Demanded the cabinet to make their wives recognize her • Jackson began throwing out Calhoun’s allies in the cabinet • Some over exaggerated Eaton Affair as a major cause of the civil war- cause a rift between Jackson and Calhoun

  24. South Carolina rebels • SC still angry over “Tariff of Abomination” • Tariff of 1832: Jackson tried to lower the tariff of 1828 • Still didn’t make South happy • SC nullified the Tariff of 1832 • Threatened to secede from the Union • Henry Clay proposes a compromise- reduce tariff by 10% over time

  25. Election of 1832 • Henry Clay (National Republican) v. Jackson (Democrat) • Anti-Masonic party- First 3rd party! • Attracted evangelical groups

  26. Jacksonian Democracy • Aim was to divorce government from the economy (laissez faire) • Return to Jeffersonian democracy • Give power to the states- equal opportunity

  27. Jackson and the National Bank • Distrusted monopolistic banks and huge businesses • Bank of US (BUS) was up for recharter • Jackson vetoed the Charter • “Bank is trying to kill me but I will kill it!” • Removed federal deposits from the Bank of US and placed them in 23 “pet banks”- called this b/c of their loyalty to the Democratic Party

  28. Whig Party formed • Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Daniel Webster formed a new political party called the Whig Party • Backed ideals of the American System • Wanted protective tariffs and backed federal control of the banking system • Became the foundation of the modern Republican Party

  29. Van Buren picks up the pieces • Martin Van Buren wins election of 1836 • Beats William Henry Harrison of Whig Party • Hand picked by Jackson • Major issue to face will be the panic of 1837

  30. Panic of 1837 • Causes: over speculation • Many of Jackson’s pet banks were wildcat banks • Printed more money than they had gold and silver on reserve- no money when people wanted to cash in • Causes huge issues when people are buying land • Jackson made people pay for land in only gold or silver • May 1837-banks stopped accepting paper money • Banks closed and the credit system collapsed • Hundred were bankrupt and lost their jobs • 1840, Congress established a treasury that only used gold and silver but that made the problem worse

  31. Harrison and Tyler • Van Buren lost reelection to William Henry Harrison (Whig) • Portrayed Harrison as a war hero and a man of the people and portrayed Van Buren as a pampered aristocrat • Actually the opposite • Harrison died a month after his inauguration • John Tyler (VP) became President and went against the Whig platform- never meant to be Pres.

  32. 2nd period groups: Omar Marcel Penelope Adaja Michael Z Shantel Ethan Prince Jerry Lauren Katherine Sam A. Michael J Megan Tim Matt Walter Brandon Delaney Giuliana Nick Sam S Shannon Catherine Daniel Lexi Juliet Usman Foram Lis

  33. 3rd period groups Tatum Lima Chase Sabrina Matt Edward Lucia Robert Shareen Nicole Zainab Sarah E Joshua Emilio Sophia Alex G Cole Yasmin Antonio Alex Z Carmen Tayla Afna Alvin Basia Tyler Kevin Sara D

  34. 6th period groups Tony Mike Soley Summer Tamir Deanna Nick Ewen Brady Rachel Cardenas Kevin G Jamie Miles Harrison Kevin N myranda Jack Paige Bailey moon Nicole Gracie Rachel Clem gema Zaara Ahsan Sonal

  35. 2nd period groups: Omar Marcel Penelope Adaja Michael Z Shantel Ethan Prince Jerry Lauren Katherine Sam A. Michael J Megan Tim Matt Walter Brandon Delaney Giuliana Nick Sam S Shannon Catherine Daniel Lexi Juliet Usman Foram Lis

  36. 3rd period groups Tatum Lima Chase Sabrina Matt Edward Lucia Robert Shareen Nicole Zainab Sarah E Joshua Emilio Sophia Alex G Cole Yasmin Antonio Alex Z Carmen Tayla Afna Alvin Basia Tyler Kevin Sara D

  37. 6th period groups Tony Mike Moon Summer Tamir Deana Nick Ewen Brady Rachel Cardenas Sammy Jamie Miles Harrison Kevin N Soley Jack Paige Bailey Myranda Nicole Gracie Rachel Clem Zaara Sonal Gema Ahsan Kevin

  38. Happy Thursday!!

  39. Age of Jackson and Reform Slavery and Abolition

  40. Abolition • The movement to outlaw slavery • William Lloyd Garrison- one of the most radical white abolitionists-newspaper editor, Boston, MA • 1831- began publishing The Liberator, a newspaper that called for immediate, uncompensated emancipation • What does this mean? • 1832-started the American Anti-Slavery Society, a group of white and black members who were committed to ending slavery • Alienated some whites by attacking churches and the government for failing to condemn slavery

  41. Free Blacks • By 1850, most free blacks in the South worked as day laborers but some held jobs as artisans • In the North, only the lowest-paying jobs were open to free blacks • Frederick Douglass- abolitionist and escaped slave from Maryland • Became a public speaker for the American Anti-Slavery Society • Eventually published his own anti-slavery newspaper The North Star

  42. Life Under Slavery • By 1830, US had 2 million slaves; by 1860- 4 million • Most slaves had been born in the US, spoke English, and worked on plantations • Marriage was allowed but not legally protected by law • Why is this significant?

  43. Types of Slavery • Plantation (rural) Slavery • Slaves worked from dawn to dusk in the fields • A white overseer or slave driver was placed in charge of work crews to make sure the slaves worked throughout the day • Urban Slavery- some skilled jobs in cities were opened for slaves • Mill work, shipping, carpentry, blacksmithing • Slave owners hired out their slaves to factory owners • Never kept their earnings-went to slave owner

  44. Slave Rebellions • Stono Rebellion (1739) REVIEW- 20 slaves in SC tried to escape to Spanish Florida- all captured and killed • Gabriel Prosser (1800)-plotted to take over Richmond, VA- Captured and killed • Denmark Vesey (1820)- plotted to take over Charleston, SC- he and followers captured and killed before they rebelled • What do all of these have in common?

  45. Henry Box Brown

  46. Nat Turner’s Rebellion • 1831- 80 slaves in Virginia attacked several plantations, killing 60 whites • State militia captured Turner and his followers • Put on trial, convicted and hanged • Significance: • White on black violence erupted- 200 killed • Southern whites determined to defend the institution of slavery • Slave codes- state laws passed to restrict slaves’ activities

  47. 2nd period Adaja Michael Z Delaney Sam A Lauren Nick Foram Brandon Catherine Lexi Shantel Megan Prince Marcel Katherine Lis Tim Shannon Usman Omar Giuliana Sam S Walter Ethan Michael Daniel Matt Jerry Juliet Penelope

  48. 3rd period Antonio Tatum Lima Chase Nicole Robert Afna Shareen Emilio Sophia Basia Sara D Alex G Cole Alex Z Yasmin Sarah E Carmen Edward Alvin Lucia Tyler Joshua Kevin Sabrina Tayla Zainab Matt

  49. 6th period Mike Tony Soley Summer Nick Deanna Bailey Jack Jamie Zaara Sammy Gracie Paige Miles Harrison Ahsan Myranda Ewen Moon Tamir Kevin N Nicole Rachel Cardenas Sonal Brady Kevin G Rachel Clem Gema