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FORGETTING. Inability to retrieve information previously stored in LTM. Theories of forgetting (retrieval failure, interference theory, motivated forgetting, decay) The features of the forgetting curve as ( the contribution of proactive and retroactive interference effects in recall)

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forgetting

FORGETTING

Inability to retrieve information previously stored in LTM

slide2

Theories of forgetting (retrieval failure, interference theory, motivated forgetting, decay)

  • The features of the forgetting curve as ( the contribution of proactive and retroactive interference effects in recall)
  • Organic causes of forgetting (amnesia both anterograde and retrograde)
  • Memory decline over the lifespan
  • Memory enhancement though quality of encoding (organisation) and the use of context dependent cues, state dependent cues and mnemonic devices (narrative chaining and method of loci)
theories of forgetting
Theories of Forgetting
  • Retrieval Failure Theory:Suggests that many memories are inaccessible because memory cues that were present when the memory was formed are missing when the time comes to retrieve it
  • Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon: Having the answer on the tip of your tongue, you know the answer is there but it is just out of reach
theories of forgetting1
Theories of Forgetting
  • Retrieval Failure Theory:Suggests that many memories are inaccessible because memory cues that were present when the memory was formed are missing when the time comes to retrieve it
  • Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon: Having the answer on the tip of your tongue, you know the answer is there but it is just out of reach
retrieval cues
Retrieval Cues
  • Any piece of information that aids the retrieval of information stored in LTM
  • Experiment
  • Look at the list of words. Provide three words for each word that somehow relate to that word.
  • Place you name on your piece of paper and hand it to the teacher.
interference theory
Interference Theory
  • The tendency for new memories to impair the retrieval of older memories and vice versa
  • Proposes that forgetting in LTM results from other memories interfering with the retrieval of information targeted for recall, especially when memories are similar
types of interference
Types of Interference
  • Retroactive Interference: Refers to the tendency for new information to interfere with the retrieval of previously learned information (think: retro = backward)
  • Proactive Interference: Refers to the tendency for previously learned information to interfere with the retrieval of recently learned information (think: proactive = forward)
motivated forgetting
Motivated Forgetting
  • Forgetting in LTM occurs because of a conscious or unconscious desire to block out painful or threatening memories
  • Repression: Occurs unconsciously or without your awareness
  • Suppression: When you actively and consciously attempt to put something out of awareness – you could choose to remember it
limitations to motivated forgetting
Limitations to Motivated Forgetting
  • Has not been extensively tested in laboratory
  • Other factors could account for memory loss such as a blow to the head or lack of consolidation
decay theory
Decay Theory
  • Assumes that when learning takes place a change occurs in the brain – a memory trace is formed (physical/chemical trace of the event)
  • Decay theory suggests that these traces disintegrate over time if they are not reactivated for use
  • Only relevant to LTM
limitations of decay theory
Limitations of Decay Theory
  • Fails to explain why some memories fade and others are maintained for life
  • Doesn’t explain our ability to recover seemingly forgotten memories – this can happen through re-learning or a retrieval cue
the forgetting curve
The Forgetting Curve
  • There is a normal curve for forgetting new information
  • Hermann Ebbinghaus did experiment on himself using nonsense syllables
  • After 20 mins he remembered 70%
  • After 1 hour her remembered 54%
  • After 1 day he remembered 38%
  • After 2 days he remembered 28%
  • After a month remembered 21
rate and amount of forgetting
Rate and Amount of Forgetting
  • Curve is generally the same for a variety of materials but can vary
  • Semantic memories tend to be lasting
  • More meaningful information is also forgotten less easily
  • How well information is encoded influences rate and amount of forgetting – not affected by difficulty of information
organic causes of forgetting
Organic Causes of Forgetting
  • When damage to the brain causes abnormal functioning it is said to be organic eg: blow to head, stroke, tumour – these can lead to amnesia, a common form of memory loss

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw&feature=related

  • Amnesia: temporary or permanent, partial or complete loss of memory
  • Organic = caused by damage to brain
  • Dissociative = psychological trauma
amnesia anterograde amnesia
Amnesia:Anterograde Amnesia
  • Brain damage or trauma that causes memory loss for events occurring AFTER the amnesia (antero = forward)
  • Sufferers are able to retrieve LTM’s but are unable to form new ones
  • Extent of amnesia depends on the extent of the injury
amnesia retrograde amnesia
Amnesia:Retrograde Amnesia
  • Memory loss for events occurring BEFORE the amnesia (retro = backward)
  • Sufferers are unable to remember events or information related to the past but are able to form new memories
alzheimers disease
Alzheimers Disease
  • Permanent, progressive and debilitating form of dementia that results from organic brain decay
  • Serious and permanent loss of intellectual capacity that results in confusion and loss of memory – especially for episodic and semantic memories
  • Considered to be age-related, but not always
  • Read more on pages 256/257
memory decline over lifespan
Memory Decline over Lifespan
  • People remember more between the ages of 10 and 30 – why?
  • We experience new things
  • Physical abilities are high
  • Young adults have better recall but recognition doesn’t decline with age
  • Age results in more errors in recalling meaningless information
  • Episodic memories more affected by age
  • Attitude affects memory recall in older people
memory enhancement
Memory Enhancement
  • Information not properly encoded is more easily forgotten
  • Organising new information by connecting it to LTM’s increases retrieval chances
  • Attending to information ensures it will not be lost
  • Quality of encoding: Shallow: physical structure, Moderate: acoustic/phonetic qualities, Deep: links new to old
retrieval cues1
Retrieval Cues
  • Encoding specificity principle: the more closely retrieval cues match original condition the greater the chance of recall
  • Context-dependent cue: Our physical surroundings during the learning
  • State-dependent cue: The bodily state that exists during learning
mnemonic devices
Mnemonic Devices
  • Any kind of memory system or aid
  • Imagery: mental representations or mental picture of something
  • Mental association: creating connections between new and LTM’s
  • Narrative chaining: links unrelated items to create a sequence of meaningful information
  • Method of Loci: Mentally linking a serious of locations to information that needs to be recalled