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Mrs. Jackson’s Absolute Bare Minimum Module 1 Review. Quarterly Assessment 1 Review. An organism is any individual living thing. Living things share some common characteristics:. All need energy for metabolism. Metabolism: All of the chemical processes in

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slide2
An organism is any individual living thing.
  • Living things share some common characteristics:
  • All need energy for metabolism.
    • Metabolism: All of the chemical processes in

an organism that build up or break down materials.

  • All are made of one or more cells.
  • All respond to their environment.
    • Stimuli, or physical factors, include light, temperature, and touch.
  • All have genetic material (DNA) that they pass on to offspring.
life depends on hydrogen bonds in water
_

O

H

H

+

+

Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water.
  • Water is a polar molecule.
    • Polar molecules have slightly charged regions.

Atom: Oxygen

Charge: Slightly negative

  • Hydrogen bonds
  • form between slightly positive hydrogen atoms and slightly negative atoms. (oxygen)

Atom: Hydrogen

Charge: Slightly positive

  • Nonpolar molecules do not have charged regions.
slide4
High Specific Heat: water resists changes in temp.
    • Provides stability of temperature for land masses surrounded by water & for the temperature of the human body, & makes it an effective cooling agent.
  • Cohesion: water molecules stick to each other. We saw this in the water lab when water built up on the penny & rolled around on the wax paper.
  • Adhesion: water molecules stick to other things.
  • Ice floats on water: one of the only solids to float on its liquid form – due to arrangement of water molecules due to charged regions.
  • Hydrogen bonds are responsible for important properties of water.
many compounds dissolve in water
solutionMany compounds dissolve in water.
  • A solution is formed when one substance dissolves in another. A solution is a homogeneous mixture.
    • Solvents dissolve other substances. (i.e. water)
    • Solutes dissolve in a solvent. (i.e. Koolaid powder)
slide6
Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes.
  • Nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.
  • Polar substances and nonpolar substances generally remain separate.
    • Example: Oil (non-polar) and water (polar)
  • “Like dissolves like.”
slide7
pH

<7=Acid (more H+, less OH-)

7=Neutral

>7=Base (less H+, more OH-)

Maintaining homeostasis

*Buffer: Helps to maintain pH.

speaking of homeostasis
Speaking of homeostasis…
  • Homeostasis refers to your body maintaining stable, constant internal conditions.
  • This may include:
    • Regulation of temperature (thermoregulation) Ex.: sweating during exercise
    • Regulation of pH
    • Regulation of oxygen delivery (for cellular respiration!). Ex: heart beating faster during exercise
carbon atoms have unique bonding properties
Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties.

1. Carbon forms covalent bonds (strong bonds) with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms

2. They can form large, complex, diverse molecules

carbon atoms have unique bonding properties slide 2
Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties – Slide 2

3. Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds

4. Carbon forms isomers

    • Isomers are compounds that have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas
      • Example: C4H10
  • Only carbon has these 4 characteristics
many carbon based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together
Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together.
  • Monomers are the individual subunits.
  • Polymers are made of many monomers.
  • When organisms break down large organic compounds (macromolecules), they can obtain energy and/or put the monomers back together to form different compounds.
lipids
Lipids

LIPIDS

chemical reactions release or absorb energy
Chemical reactions release or absorb energy.

Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed to start a chemical reaction

a catalyst lowers activation energy
A catalyst lowers activation energy.
  • Catalysts are substances that speed up chemical reactions
    • Decrease activation energy
    • Increase reaction rate
enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions
Enzymes allow chemical reactions to occur under tightly controlled conditions.
  • Enzymes are catalysts in living things.
    • Enzymes are needed for almost all processes.
    • Most enzymes are proteins.
    • Enzymes speed up reactions without being consumed by increasing the reaction rate.
disruptions in homeostasis can prevent enzymes from functioning
Disruptions in homeostasis can prevent enzymes from functioning.
  • Enzymes function best in a small range of conditions.
    • Changes in temperature or pH can break hydrogen bonds.
      • An enzyme’s function depends on its structure.
an enzyme s structure allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme
An enzyme’s structure allows only certain reactants to bind to the enzyme.

Substrates: reactants that bind to an enzyme

Active site: area on the enzyme where substrates bind

slide21
The Cell Theory:
    • All organisms are made of cells.
    • All cells come from other cells.
    • The cell is the basic unit of structure & function in living things.
all cells share certain characteristics
All cells share certain characteristics.
  • Cells tend to be microscopic.
  • All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane.
  • All cells are filled with cytoplasm.
  • All cells have ribosomes.
  • All cells have hereditary material (DNA)
there are 2 cell types
There are 2 cell types

Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

No nucleus (still have DNA/hereditary material)

No membrane-bound organelles

Smaller size because of lack of organelles

Less complex

Unicellular

  • Have nucleus (DNA/hereditary material)
  • Have membrane-bound organelles
  • Larger size because of organelles
  • More complex
  • Unicellular or multicellular
organelles and functions
Organelles and Functions

See 3.2 notes!!!

How does the rough ER work with the Golgi?

  • Rough ER packages the proteins its ribosomes synthesize (including membrane and secretory proteins) in vesicles to ship to the Golgi Apparatus/Body for further processing, sorting and packaging.
levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • OrganellesCellsTissuesOrgans  Organ SystemsOrganisms
cell membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers
Cell membranes are composed of two phospholipid layers.
  • The cell membrane has two major functions
    • Forms a boundary between inside and outside of the cell
    • Controls passage of materials in & out of cell
phospholipid bilayer
Phospholipid Bilayer
  • Forms a double layer surrounding a cell
  • Head is polar (attracted to water) and forms hydrogen bonds with water
  • Tails are nonpolar

(repelled by water)

passive transport does not require energy atp input from a cell
Passive transport does not require energy (ATP) input from a cell.
  • Molecules can move across the cell membrane through passive transport.
  • Movement is determined by concentration gradient.
  • Two types of passive transport (DOWN concentration gradient):
    • Diffusion: movement of molecules from high to low concentration
    • Osmosis: diffusion of water from high to low concentration
cell membrane dialysis tubing diffusion lab moved without energy
Cell Membrane Dialysis Tubing – Diffusion Lab (moved without energy)

WHY? Starch stays in bag – too big. Iodine goes through bag - small

how do different solutions affect cells
How do different solutions affect cells?
  • There are 3 types of solutions:
    • Isotonic: solution has the same concentration of solutes as the cell.
      • Water moves in and out evenly
      • Cell size stays constant
how do different solutions affect cells1
How do different solutions affect cells?
  • Hypertonic: solution has more solutes than a cell
    • More water exits the cell than enters
    • Cell shrivels or dies
how do different solutions affect cells2
How do different solutions affect cells?
  • Hypotonic: solution has fewer solutes than a cell
    • More water enters the cell than exits
    • Cell expands or bursts
some molecules can only diffuse through transport proteins
Some molecules can only diffuse through transport proteins
  • Some molecules cannot easily diffuse across the membrane
    • Ex: glucose (needed by cell to make energy)
  • Facilitated diffusion is diffusion through transport proteins
  • DOES NOT USE ENERGY

Video 

active transport
Active Transport
  • Drives molecules across a membrane from lower to higher concentration
    • Goes against the concentration gradient
    • Uses energy (ATP)
types of active transport
TYPES OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  • Endocytosis: Brings materials into cell (Endo=into)
  • Exocytosis: Releases materials out of cell (Exo=Exit)
sodium potassium pump
Sodium-Potassium Pump
  • Uses a membrane protein to pump three Na+ (sodium ions) across the membrane in exchange for two K+ (potassium ions)
    • ATP (energy) is needed to make the protein change its shape so that Na+ and K+ can move through it and cross the membrane
  • Helps the heart contract, helps regulate blood pressure, allows neurons to respond to stimuli and send signals
4 1 how do living things get atp
Starch molecule

Glucose molecule

4.1 How do living things get ATP?
  • ATP is the energy carrier in living things – it is usable energy for the cell.
  • ATP stands for Adenosine triphosphate.
  • Living things get ATP from breaking down carbon based molecules. (carbohydrates & lipids)
4 2 4 3 photosynthesis
4.2 & 4.3 Photosynthesis
  • The process of photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight and converts it into sugar (glucose).
  • This process happens in organisms called autotrophs or producers. (Need to make their own food)
  • This process takes place in and organelle called the chloroplast.
  • The chloroplast has a green pigment in it called chlorophyll that is responsible for capturing the light energy.
so how does photosynthesis work
So how does photosynthesis work?

The first stage of photosynthesis is called the Light Dependent Stage.

  • Light is captured by the chlorophyll in the thylakoid.
so how does photosynthesis work1
So how does photosynthesis work?

The second stage of photosynthesis is called the Light Independent Stage/ Calvin Cycle/ Dark Cycle.

  • This process takes place in the stroma.
the chemical formula for photosynthesis
The chemical formula for photosynthesis
  • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light C6H12O6 + 6O2

(reactants)(products)

yields

Glucose and oxygen

Carbon dioxide plus water plus light

purpose of cellular respiration
Purpose of Cellular Respiration
  • To make ATP from the energy stored in glucose
    • Glucose comes from an organism doing photosynthesis themselves or from eating foods containing glucose
        • Remember: the purpose of photosynthesis was just to get glucose
        • Cellular respiration is aerobic – it requires oxygen
equation for cellular respiration
Equation for Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP

  • Like the reverse of photosynthesis

Energy transfers:

Photo: LightCPE CR: CPECPE

what happens when there s no not enough oxygen or there are no mitochondria
What happens when there’s no/not enough oxygen or there are no mitochondria?
  • Answer: Fermentation
        • Two Kinds:
            • Lactic Acid Fermentation
            • Alcoholic Fermentation
            • Allows glycolysis to continue making ATP without oxygen
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