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The Agricultural/Industrial Revolution

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The Agricultural/Industrial Revolution

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  1. The Agricultural/Industrial Revolution

  2. Causes:1. Expanding Atlantic economy and British Empire

  3. 2. Natural conditions favorable • Coal • Iron • Waterways

  4. 3. Agricultural Revolution, 1700-1800 • JethroTull, 1674-1741 • First Modern Farmer • Invented seed drill

  5. Seed Drill

  6. Agricultural Rev. (contd.) • Enclosures • Crop rotation system • Improvement became the goal

  7. Agricultural Rev. (contd.) • Led to: • More efficient food production • Cheaper food • More disposable income • Less workers needed in rural areas

  8. 4. Political conditions • Constitutional Monarchy • Relative Stability • Economic growth

  9. 5. Legal conditions • No internal tariffs • Patent law encouraged invention

  10. 6. Financial Conditions • Effective central bank (1694) • well-develop credit markets • Stock market • Plenty of capital • Money, Materials, Workers, ect.

  11. 7. Proto-industry • Putting-out system or cottage industry • Division of labor

  12. 8. Major technological advances • Cotton is king! • 1760s - James Hargreaves invented Spinning Jenny • 1760s - Richard Arkwright invented Water Frame • 1779 - Samuel Crompton invented the Spinning Mule

  13. 8. Major technological advances (contd.) • One roof • 1770s: Arkwright also developed the Factory System: • Central source of power • Division of Labor

  14. 8. Major technological advances (contd.) • Steam Power: • 1698: Thomas Savery invented a steam engine • 1712: Thomas Newcomen invented a steam engine

  15. 8. Major technological advances (contd.) • Steam Power: • 1765: James Watt greatly improved Newcomen engine • 1820s: Railroads: George Stephenson’s Rocket

  16. Industrial Revolution

  17. Industrial Revolution • What? • Major change in the economy caused by the shift to industry with labor-saving machines. • When? • Really got going in Europe in the mid to late 1700’s. • Really got going in America after the Civil War.(1860’s +)

  18. WHY?Eight Reasons Really took off after the Civil War in U.S. Ex. In 1840 US had 3,000 miles of track and by 1860 30,000 Started many business practices that made the Industrial Revolution possible Rail Roads

  19. WHY?Eight Reasons New Lands Nations built Rail Roads in colonies to extract resources. Federal Govt. gives western land free to Rail Raods to encourage business and Settlement. Rail Roads took farmers out to their land, carried their crops to market , and brought them manufactured goods.

  20. WHY?Eight Reasons Immigration Rail Road companies adverstise in Europe to attract immigrants to lands Most immigrants settle in cities, joining the urban industrial workforce

  21. WHY?Eight Reasons Urbanization Rail Roads made cities possible providing them with the food they needed, raw materials, and new markets For the 1st time, more people have non-farming than farming jobs

  22. Thinking Slide • Which cause do think is most important so far? • Explain

  23. WHY?Eight Reasons Innovations Steel rails – safer and cheaper More examples: Cash register typewriter Refrigerator car Telephone Light bulb Phonograph

  24. WHY?Eight Reasons New Business Practices “Pool” – agreement to divide the business in a given area and share the profits Where there is $ there is corruption and Railroads introduced much of both

  25. WHY?Eight Reasons Social Darwinism “Survival of the Fittest” The rich have more money because they have better businesses

  26. WHY?Eight Reasons Govt. Laissez-Faire Laissez-Faire “Hands Off” Government did not interfere with the economy and businesses

  27. Thinking Slide: • Do you think we could use more “Laissez Faire” economic policies today? • Explain